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101 Cards in this Set

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earth and plantets formed

cloud of dust and gas slowly rotated in space

meteorites contain

clues to earths origin, age and source of water

inner planets

mercury, venus, earth, mars, small size and high density

outer planets

jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune, large with low density

materials comprising earth

acquired by accretion of meteorites and cosmic debris

earth has two kinds of crust

oceanic, mafic composition and continental, felsic in composition

early atmosphere

no free oxygen

water for hydrosphere

derived from planets interior by outgassing

archean rocks

occur in regions of continents called cartoons, consist largely of accreted archean terranes

rock associations in archean cratons

granulites and greenstones

life evolved

nonliving organic molecules

first forms of life

anaerobic, prokaryotic organisms

organells

represent once independent prokaryotes

stromatolites

laminated calcareous structures produced by cyanobacteria, most abundant fossil

crust formed

4000 million years ago

solar nebula hypothesis

solar systems origin

immanuel kant

proposed that the solar system distilled from a rotating cloud of dust particles

solar nebula

solar system distilled from rotating cloud of dust particles and gasses


nova

cataclysmic explosions

accretion

process of accumulating bits of matter around initial mass

protoplanets

growing bodies formed from accreting materials

fusion

hydrogen fusion released great energy as it converted hydrogen atoms into helium atoms

solar wind

stream of radiation from the sun

meteros

interplanetary bits and chunks of space rock that succumb to earths gravity and streak through our atmosphere

meteorites

meters that survive the heat and reach the ground

ordinary chondrites

most abundant meteorites and at 4.56 billion years old are clearly archean

chondrules

solidified molten droplets splashed into space

carbonaceous chondrites

5% organic compounds, provided much of earths early carbon

iron meteorites

actually iron nickel

stony iron meteorites

lest abundant, composed of silicate minerals and iron nickel

mercury

hot, swift, small, revolved four times faster with thin atmosphere

venus

nothing could survive, no water, oceans,high carbon dioxide content

earth

interior dense, water, nitrogen, oxygen

moon

large relative to earth, same rotation

lunar highlands

ligher hued graggy and heavily cratered regions of the moon

maria

dark areas of the moon, form floors of immense basins flooded with basaltic lava

mars

close enough to sun, water was abundant, less gravity

asteroid belt

beyond the orbit of mars lies a ring of asteroids numbering in the thousands rock and metals one tenth the size of earth

outer planets

jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune

jupiter and saturn

giant gas balls, jupiter is largest in system saturn is second. saturn rings of water ice with small amounts of silicates

uranus and neptune

similiar in size and density. methane and hydrogen.

pluto

no longer a planet. plutoid-not a planet

differentiated

three distinct layers, core male and crust

partial melting

complete melting would have allowed too many volatile gases to escape

magma ocean

on earths surface as a result of ample heat melting upper mantle

komatities

rocks formed from cooling magma ocean

outgassing

process by which water vapor and other gases are released from rocks



photochemical dissociation

breakup of water molecules into hydrogen during proterozoic time

photosynthesis

oxygen generating mechanism by splitting carbon dioxide into oxygen

banded iron formations

oxygen gradually began to appear in earths early atmosphere in these rocks

hydrologic cycle

recirculation by evaporation and precipitation of water

precambrian rocks

older than cambrian period and represent an enormous expanse of geologic time

archean eon

old precambrian time

proterozoic

young precambrian

platforms

stable regions where basement shields are blanketed by sedimentary strata

felsic

continental crust

mafic

oceanic crust

granulite association

composed largely of gneisses derived from strongly heated and deformed granitic rocks

greenstone association

composed of volcanic rocks

organelles

bodies capable of performing specific functions

components of life

protein, nucleic acids, organic phosphorus compounds, a container

protein

strings of comparatively simple organic molecules called amino acids

nucleic acids

large, complex molecules found in the nuclei of cells

organic phosphorus compounds

transform light energy or chemical fuel into energy required for cell activities

a container

cell membrane

Miller

simulated earths earliest atmosphere

hyperthermophiles

evidence for such a stygian beginning of life is in the presence of microbes

chemosynthesis

in the absence of light, organisms derive energy

autotrophs

manufacture their own food

photoautotrophs

employ photosynthesis

heterotrophs

scavenge nutrients in their environmnet

aerobic organisms

rely on oxygen to lice

anaerobic organisms

don't need oxygen

prokaryotes

organisms have genetic material not packaged in nucleus. asexually reproduce

eukaryotes

definited nucleus and chromosomes

earth formed

cosmic material in solar nebula

differntiation

formation of the core mantle and crust, lots of heat required

heat required for differntiation

resulted from radioactive decay, gravitational compression and intense meteoritic

Big bang theory

14 GA birth of universe

nebula hypothesis

5GA birth of solar system

Newton

born chirsmas, same year galileo died (built telescope)

kepler

greatest astronomer, 3 planetary motion

tell composition of planets

absorption pattern generated in infrared part of light spectrum. absorption lines

red shift theory

galactic bodies are receding away center, viewed towards long wavelength

mercury -rocky planet

cooked planet, cratered, dead, smallest, no atmosphere, closest to sun

venus rocky planet

veiled planed, choked in smog and cod, volcatnic terrain

earth -rocky planet

green, geomagnetic field, protection

mars- rocky planet

red planet, dusty, cold, no magnetic field, cratered, volcano

asteroid belt- rocky planet

zone meteors, rocky bodies

jupiter- gas planet

gaseous giant 16 moons

saturn gas planet

97 gaseous, rings of ice and rock

uranus gas planet

ice cliffs, rings, orbits on side

neptune gas planet

rings

kuiper belt

many bodies of rock and ice like planets

pluto

no longer a planet :(

oort belt

ice space

terrestrial planets

small, dense, rocky, mercury, venus, earth, mars

jovian planets

large, low density, gaseous, jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune

first atmosphere on earth

lacked oxygen

primitive atmosphere of earth

associated with comets and meteorites which formed the earth during accretion

outgassing

most gases reached the earths surface