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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

earth and plantets formed

cloud of dust and gas slowly rotated in space

meteorites contain

clues to earths origin, age and source of water

inner planets

mercury, venus, earth, mars, small size and high density

outer planets

jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune, large with low density

materials comprising earth

acquired by accretion of meteorites and cosmic debris

earth has two kinds of crust

oceanic, mafic composition and continental, felsic in composition

early atmosphere

no free oxygen

water for hydrosphere

derived from planets interior by outgassing

archean rocks

occur in regions of continents called cartoons, consist largely of accreted archean terranes

rock associations in archean cratons

granulites and greenstones

life evolved

nonliving organic molecules

first forms of life

anaerobic, prokaryotic organisms


represent once independent prokaryotes


laminated calcareous structures produced by cyanobacteria, most abundant fossil

crust formed

4000 million years ago

solar nebula hypothesis

solar systems origin

immanuel kant

proposed that the solar system distilled from a rotating cloud of dust particles

solar nebula

solar system distilled from rotating cloud of dust particles and gasses


cataclysmic explosions


process of accumulating bits of matter around initial mass


growing bodies formed from accreting materials


hydrogen fusion released great energy as it converted hydrogen atoms into helium atoms

solar wind

stream of radiation from the sun


interplanetary bits and chunks of space rock that succumb to earths gravity and streak through our atmosphere


meters that survive the heat and reach the ground

ordinary chondrites

most abundant meteorites and at 4.56 billion years old are clearly archean


solidified molten droplets splashed into space

carbonaceous chondrites

5% organic compounds, provided much of earths early carbon

iron meteorites

actually iron nickel

stony iron meteorites

lest abundant, composed of silicate minerals and iron nickel


hot, swift, small, revolved four times faster with thin atmosphere


nothing could survive, no water, oceans,high carbon dioxide content


interior dense, water, nitrogen, oxygen


large relative to earth, same rotation

lunar highlands

ligher hued graggy and heavily cratered regions of the moon


dark areas of the moon, form floors of immense basins flooded with basaltic lava


close enough to sun, water was abundant, less gravity

asteroid belt

beyond the orbit of mars lies a ring of asteroids numbering in the thousands rock and metals one tenth the size of earth

outer planets

jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune

jupiter and saturn

giant gas balls, jupiter is largest in system saturn is second. saturn rings of water ice with small amounts of silicates

uranus and neptune

similiar in size and density. methane and hydrogen.


no longer a planet. plutoid-not a planet


three distinct layers, core male and crust

partial melting

complete melting would have allowed too many volatile gases to escape

magma ocean

on earths surface as a result of ample heat melting upper mantle


rocks formed from cooling magma ocean


process by which water vapor and other gases are released from rocks

photochemical dissociation

breakup of water molecules into hydrogen during proterozoic time


oxygen generating mechanism by splitting carbon dioxide into oxygen

banded iron formations

oxygen gradually began to appear in earths early atmosphere in these rocks

hydrologic cycle

recirculation by evaporation and precipitation of water

precambrian rocks

older than cambrian period and represent an enormous expanse of geologic time

archean eon

old precambrian time


young precambrian


stable regions where basement shields are blanketed by sedimentary strata


continental crust


oceanic crust

granulite association

composed largely of gneisses derived from strongly heated and deformed granitic rocks

greenstone association

composed of volcanic rocks


bodies capable of performing specific functions

components of life

protein, nucleic acids, organic phosphorus compounds, a container


strings of comparatively simple organic molecules called amino acids

nucleic acids

large, complex molecules found in the nuclei of cells

organic phosphorus compounds

transform light energy or chemical fuel into energy required for cell activities

a container

cell membrane


simulated earths earliest atmosphere


evidence for such a stygian beginning of life is in the presence of microbes


in the absence of light, organisms derive energy


manufacture their own food


employ photosynthesis


scavenge nutrients in their environmnet

aerobic organisms

rely on oxygen to lice

anaerobic organisms

don't need oxygen


organisms have genetic material not packaged in nucleus. asexually reproduce


definited nucleus and chromosomes

earth formed

cosmic material in solar nebula


formation of the core mantle and crust, lots of heat required

heat required for differntiation

resulted from radioactive decay, gravitational compression and intense meteoritic

Big bang theory

14 GA birth of universe

nebula hypothesis

5GA birth of solar system


born chirsmas, same year galileo died (built telescope)


greatest astronomer, 3 planetary motion

tell composition of planets

absorption pattern generated in infrared part of light spectrum. absorption lines

red shift theory

galactic bodies are receding away center, viewed towards long wavelength

mercury -rocky planet

cooked planet, cratered, dead, smallest, no atmosphere, closest to sun

venus rocky planet

veiled planed, choked in smog and cod, volcatnic terrain

earth -rocky planet

green, geomagnetic field, protection

mars- rocky planet

red planet, dusty, cold, no magnetic field, cratered, volcano

asteroid belt- rocky planet

zone meteors, rocky bodies

jupiter- gas planet

gaseous giant 16 moons

saturn gas planet

97 gaseous, rings of ice and rock

uranus gas planet

ice cliffs, rings, orbits on side

neptune gas planet


kuiper belt

many bodies of rock and ice like planets


no longer a planet :(

oort belt

ice space

terrestrial planets

small, dense, rocky, mercury, venus, earth, mars

jovian planets

large, low density, gaseous, jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune

first atmosphere on earth

lacked oxygen

primitive atmosphere of earth

associated with comets and meteorites which formed the earth during accretion


most gases reached the earths surface