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60 Cards in this Set

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Gross national product that doesn't take into account business tax. US$ per year.

GNI per Capita

Average income per person. US$ per person per year.


Combines GNI per capita, life expectancy and literacy. Score out of 1.

Birth rate

Births per 1000 per year.

Death rate

Deaths per 1000 per year

Infant mortality

Deaths under the age of 1 per 1000 live births per year.

People per doctor

Number of doctors per 1000 people

Literacy rate

% of the population that can read and write a simple sentence.

Access to safe drinking water

% of the population with access to safe drinking water

Life expectancy

Age a person can expect to live to from their birth.

As GNP increases, birth rate...

decreases as women have more career prospects and are less dependant on having a family.

As safe water increases, infant mortality...

decreases as less water borne diseases are spread e.g cholera.

As GNP increases, literacy rate...

Increases as more money is invested in education.

Limitation of BR as a development indicator

Birth falls with development as women have more career opportunity.

However, some developed countries BR also decreases due to an elderly population.

Limitations of DR as a development indicator

Death rate increases as development increases due to improved healthcare.

However, an ageing population can cause an increase in DR.

Limitations of GNI per capita as a development indicator

Wealth is not always spread equally due to inequality. For example, in the middle east, money is not invested in development.

Why HDI is more appropriate for measuring development...

It combines multiple factors including life expectancy, literacy rate, years in school and income.

The most developed countries are called...

Rich industrial countries e.g UK

These countries are neither rich nor poor, but developing quickly.

Former communist countries e.g Poland

These countries are getting rapidly richer and are moving into secondary industry.

Newly industrialised countries e,g China

These countries have a high GNI but a large amount of inequality.

Oil exporting countries e.g Qatar

The poorest and most indebted countries

Heavily indebted poor countries e.g Ethiopia

Quality of Life

Measures physical quality of life and the nations liveability. e.g Housing, health, democracy, environment.

Standard of living

Wealth and income of inhabitants. e.g GNI per capita and the distribution of wealth.

Improving quality of life

Small scale improvements to the area by locals

Favelas in Brazil

-Literacy classes

-Brick building

-Legal rights to land

MNU project in Nairobi

-Rubbish collection

-Water pipes

Environmental factors that create inequality

-Few natural resources for export

-Infertile land

-Tropical climate means reliance on the wet season, and hard to grow in droughts.

-Disease spread e.g mosquitos

-Land locked means no shipping

-Natural disasters

Social factors that create inequality

-Rapid population growth

-Diseases such as HIV/Aids means that people can't be educated or work

-Poor drinking water supply

Political factors that create inequality

-Former qualities had their resources depleted and very little investment.

-Unstable government doesn't invest

-Corrupt governments don't invest

-Civil war

Economic factors that create inequality

-Price of raw resources goes up and down with global demand.

-Countries don't have the wealth to build factories so must sell primary goods.

-Some countries have to import manufactured items

-Some countries may be in debt to international banks and owe large amounts of interest.

Non-Fair Trade

-Large companies decide the price as they have purchasing power.

-The price varies

-Companies stockpile coco when it is cheaper.

Fair Trade

-Kupa coco buy the chocolate. They represent a group of farmers.

-They negotiate a fair price for the coco.

-Companies pay to display the fair trade logo

-They receive a social premium of $150 to invest in the community on sanitation, education and healthcare.


Tax on trade


Limits on the amount of trade


Are benefits to local farmers/produce

A trading group is...

When a group of countries group together to remove trading barriers between them. The UK is in the EEA

Benefits of trading groups

They can negotiate prices with countries outside the group without being undercut

Free trade within the group

Benefits for Ghana being in ECOWAS

-They can export secondary products like chocolate freely with other north african countries.

-They can receive a fairer price for coco as they can negotiate in a group.

Disadvantage of Ghana being in ECOWAS

Most countries within ECOWAS don't wan't to buy coco as they are lower developed, so they are still forced to sell to richer trading groups.

The problems with debt

-Countries get into debt when they take out large loans after natural disasters and then have to pay it back with high interest rates.

-They then focus on paying it back rather that investing. e.g Tanzania spends 3x as much on debt repayment than education.

Debt cancellation

In 2005, the G8 conference gathered the 8 richest countries to pay of $40bn of debt from the 18 most indebted countries in the world.

This was on the condition that the countries would use their money on development and that they could manage finance.

Debt for conservation

The US, WWF and the Guatemalan government organised that 75% of Guatemala's debt would be cancelled for the conservation of the rainforest.

Debt for Conservation- Guatemala's benefits

-Debt reduced



Debt for conservation- US and WWF's benefits

-Rainforest conserved



Debt for Conservation- Global benefits

-Rare species conserved

-Trees use CO2 which reduces global warming

Bilateral aid

Aid given from one government to another

Multilateral aid

Aid given through international organisations like the world bank.

Short/emergency aid

Used after disasters to provide recovery and save lives.

Long term/Development aid

Involves providing local communities with education and skills for sustainable development

Top down aid

Directed to the government through loans so large scale projects can be directed.

Bottom up aid

Provides basic health care, clean water and education to local communities. Aims to improve QOL.

Reasons for aid...

-Emergency aid saves lives

-Allows rebuilding after a disaster

-Medical training improves QOL and SOL

-Agricultural aid improves food production

-Industrial aid can create jobs and improve infrastructure

-Helps a country develop resources

Reasons against aid...

-Developing countries can become dependent on aid.

-Sometimes loans can't be repaid.

-Corruption means it might not go to the right people

-Large scale products can benefit foreign investors more.

-Tied aid can put pressure on the country. e.g the Pergau Dam where the Uk received an arms deal in exchange for the dam.

What is water aid?

Water aid work with local communities and low cost technologies to achieve water, sanitation and hygiene.

Water aid Low cost technology

-Low cost and maintained by the community

-Communities consulted and provide labour to give a sense of ownership.

-Locally source materials. Easily replaced. e.g rope pumps.

-Locals trained

Water aid benefits

Health- Prevention of water borne disease means more time to work and school

Education- reducing disease and water carrying time means more time for school.

Diet and nutrition- allows irrigation of the plants and livestock. Improves diet.

Income- reduction of illness means more work

Women- More time and a greater role in community as reduced time carrying water.

Characteristics of the EU Economic Core-UK

-Population growing controllably due to immigration.

-High tech jobs attract migrants

-High tech jobs improve wealth

-Temperate- Not too hot/cold good for farming

-Second group to enter EU gives trade benefits

-Centre of trade of skills, capital and labour with the rest of EU.

Characteristic of the EU economic periphery-Bulgaria

-Declining population 300,000 left in 10 years

-Emigration of skilled workers to other parts of the EU for work.

-Primary and secondary jobs

-Drought in the summer and snow in the winter

-Communist until the 90s so investment didn't occur.

-Only recently joined in 2007

EU CAP fund (The common agricultural policy)

-Guarantees minimum standards of production for farmers.

-Fair pay and improves QOL for farmers

-Ensures reasonable prices/subsidies

Urban 2- Regional transfer of resources

-Money comes from the EU regional development fund.

-Integrates isolated groups

-Jobs on public services

-Environmentally friendly transport

-Renewable energy

Fureal in Spain benefitted from Urban 2 by...

Building a ring road which kept traffic out of their retail area. This meant a boosted economy.