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48 Cards in this Set

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Regolith is

Fragments of rock that result from the processes of weathering

The movement of material by moving wind, water, or ice is a process called ___ whereas the process that down solid rock into loose sediments is called___

Erosion, weathering

Weathering is

Physical or chemical break down of rocks to regolith and then soil

Which if the following definitions most accurately pertains to weathering?

the physical to chemical breakdown of rock exposed to air, water, and organic matter.

Which of the following is NOT true of frost wedging in rocks?

it only occurs in the polar regions of the Earth

Frost wedging is

When water cracks in rock freezes and expands, breaking the rock apart

Rocks that are brought to the surface from deep down area said to undergo ___. Near the surface, the resultant pressure release may cause the rock to form _____

Exhumation/ sheet joints

Rocks under high pressures deep inside the crust are sometimes uplifted to the surface. This process is called ___. The drop in pressure at result in ____.

Exhumation/ expansion of the rocks, forming sheet joints

Which of the following forms of weathering does NOT involve a mechanical weathering process?

Oxidation

Which of the following is not associated with the process of mechanical weathering

hydrolysis reactions

Which of the following processes is a chemical weathering phenomenon?

Hydrolysis

Rainwater can mix CO2 in the atmosphere to form carbonic acid. This can rest in the chemical weathering of rocks because:

Hydrolysis reactions cause H+ ions in the acid to displace cations in minerals.

Hydrolysis reaction are when H+ cations in water replace mineral cations like K+, Na+ and Mg2+ in mineral crystal lattice, forming a new mineral. This is how feldspars commonly break down to form:

Clay

Minerals like halite and calcite are partially prone to chemical weathering through the process of dissolution. As a result, the following type of rock is prone to this type if weathering:

Limestone, rock salt, marble. ( A, B, C)

What mineral commonly breaks down into clay when it is chemically weathered?

Feldspar

The correct order if soil horizons fein the top down is:

O A E B C




OAE Before Christ

Which of the soil horizons make up humus?

O and A horizons

What is the term geologists' use for the layer of loose, heterogenous weathered material lying on the top of the bedrock?

Regolith

Which of the of the following minerals would be most likely to form a clay mineral during chemical weathering?

Mica

Which of the following minerals found in a granite in not altered by chemical weathering?

Quartz

Which of the following factors would increase the chemical weathering rate?

Increasing rainfall, temperature, & organic activity



Gravels (including pebbles) are pieces of older rock minerals greater than

2 mm



The largest class size in the range of gravel is

boulder

Graded beds are the result of deposition by

turbidity currents

When rivers enter large bodies of standing water they typically debouche their loads forming

deltas

Strips of san sand gravel lying above sea level and paralleling the adjacent coastline but separated from it by a narrow body of water are called

barrier islands

The foliation in a slate is called slaty

cleavage

Typical platy minerals (Sheet Silicates) defining a foliation include

Chlorite, muscovite, biotite

Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of coarse- grained

dolomite

Quartzite is a metamorphic rock composted of a dense network of interlocking

Quartz

Slates are characterized by a tendency to break into even parallel sheets due to the parallel alignment of the flat crystal faces if

Chlorite and muscovite

____ a common mineral found in igneous rock, is the most abundant mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks

Quartz



In which of the following are particles sized ordered from smallest to largest?

Clay, silt, sand

A sandstone containing an appreciable quantity of feldspar us a

Arkose

_____ and ____ are sources of heat for metamorphism

Geothermal gradient. magmas

__ is a common example of a porphyroblast

Garnet

Which of the following lists the rock in the order of the increasing grain size and increasing grade of metamorphism?

Slate, schist, phyllite

The principle of superposition refers to the idea that

the oldest strata area at the bottom

An unconformity marks...

a gap in the geologic record

____ Are fragments of an older rock unit that are incorporated into another younger stratum

Inclusions

Which of the following represents the largest time period?

Precambrian

The ___ was an era dominated by the dinosaurs

Mesozoic

Radiometric age is often referred to as ___ age.

Absolute

The principle of the original horizontality states that___

Sediments are deposited as essentially horizontal layers

Fossiles are most common in which type if rock?

Sedimentary

A disconformity is_____

a erosional surface between horizontal sedimentary rocks

What is the name for an erosion surface that separates two sets of sedimentary layers with non- parallel bedding plans?

Angular unconformity

Which of the following is used geologist to determine the relative ages on a rock sequence?

Stratigraphy, fossils, cross-cutting relationships


* All of these