Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/33

Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Allele

Any of the alternative forms of a given gene

Amniocentesis

Prenatal test in which a small sample of the amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus is removed and examined

Autosomes

All chromosomes other than the sex chromosome

CVS (Chorionic villus sampling)

Prenatal test that involves taking a tiny tissue sample from outside the sac where the fetus develops. It is performed between 10-12 weeks after a now-pregnant woman's last menstrual period

Chromosomal aberration

Alteration in the number or physical structure of chromosomes

Chromosome

DNA molecule that contains genes in linear order to which numbers proteins are bound

Codon

A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides in an mRNA molecule, specifying either an AA or a stop signal in protein synthesis

Consanguinity

degree of relationship between persons who descend from a common ancestor

Degenerate

Feature of the genetic code in which an AA corresponds to more than one codon

Deletion

loss of chromosomal material

Germinal mutation

a mutation that takes place in a reproductive cell



DNA

Macromolecule usually composed of 2 polynucleotide chains in a double helix that is a carrier of genetic information in all cells

dominant

refers to an allele whose presence in a heterozygous genotype results in a phenotype characteristic of the allele

Gene

A region of DNA containing genetic information, which is usually transcribed into an RNA molecule that is processed and either functions directly or is translated into a polypeptide chain; the hereditary unit

Genomics

systematic study of an organism's genome using large-scale DNA sequencing gene-expression analysis, or computational methods

Hemizygous

Describes an individual who has only one member of a chromosome pair or chromosome segment rather than the usual two; refers in particular to X-linked genes in males who under usual circumstances have only one X-chromosome.

Heterozygous/ Homozygous

Carrying dissimilar/same alleles of one or more genes

Inborn errors of metabolism

a genetically determined biochemical disorder, usually in the form of an enzyme defect that produces metabolic block

Inversion

a structural aberration in a chromosome in which the order of several genes is reversed from the normal order

Klinefelter syndrome

A disorder that occurs when an ovum with an extra X chromosome is fertilized by a sperm with a Y chromosome. This results in an XXY genotype male who is sterile

Locus

site of a particular gene on a chromosome

mRNA

an RNA molecule that is transcribed from a DNA sequence and translated into the aa sequence of a polypeptide

Monogenic

of, relating to, or controlled by a single gene, especially by either of an allelic pair


Monosomy

a condition in an otherwise diploid organism in which one member of a pair of chromosomes is missing

Nondisjunction

Failure of chromosomes to separate (disjoin) and move to opposite poles of the division spindle; the result is loss or gain of a chromosome.

polygenic

genetic disorder resulting from the combined action of alleles of more than one gene

polysomy

condition of a diploid cell or organism that has three or more copies of a particular chromosome

Transcription

the process by which the information contained in a template strand of DNA is copied into a single-stranded RNA molecule of complementary base sequence

tRNA

a small RNa molecule that translates a codon into an AA in protein synthesis, it has a 3 base, (anti codon), complementary to a specific codon in mRNA and a site to which a specific AA is bound

Translation

the process by which the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is synthesized on a ribosome according to the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA molecule

Translocation

a mutation results from an exchange of parts of 2 chromosomes

Truncated protein

protein that does not achieve its full length or its proper form and thus is missing some of the AA residues that are present in a normal protein. Cannot fully function

Turner syndrome

monosomy syndrome that results when an ovum lacking the X chromosome is fertilized by a sperm that contains an X chromosome. The result is an offspring with 22 pairs of autosomes and a single, unmatched x chromosome.