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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
who discovered dna?
franklin and wilson
who discovered the shape of dna?
watson, krik
what is the shape of dna?
a twisted double helix
what is a nucleotide and why are they so important?
in dna they code for proteins which is the central key to cell function and life.
what are the 3 parts of a nucleotide?
sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base
what 2 parts of dna make up the backbone?
phosphate and pentose sugar
name all of the nitrogen bases found in dna?
adenine thymine guanine cytosine
complimentary of: ATCGGTCAGCTCGTA
TAGCCAGTCGAGCAT
complimetnary of:
ACGTTGCATCGATCG
TGCAACGTAGCTAGC
how many hydrogen bonds are between each complimentary bade?
A-T=2 (skinny letters)
C-G=3 (fat letters)
why are hydrogen bongs between the nitrogen bases?
they need to be held together, but weakly so they can be seperated for replication
what is DNA replication?
makes an exact copy of DNA and enzymes work to link together nucleotides.
list the steps in DNA replication?
1.the double helix is unwound by helicase
2.RNA primase is bound to the starting DNA site.... usees RNA
3. a molecule of DNA polymerase binds to one strand of the DNA. it moves moves along the strand acting as a template for assembling a leading strand of nucleotides and reforming a double helix.
4.exonuclease removes original RNA
5.DNA polymerase replaces the removed RNA w/ DNA nucleotides
6.DNA adds any missing phosphates to the backbone
name the 4 types of DNA mutation
substitution, insertion, deletion, frameshift
explain substitution mutation?
one base is replaced by another
explain insertion mutation?
an extra 3 (or more) base pairs are inserted into a new place in DNA
explain deletion mutation?
section of DNA is lost or deleted
explain frameshift mutation?
changing the whole DNA message
(from ACTGCA to GCAACT)
compare and contrast DNA and RNA
DNA- deoxyribose
-Thymine
-double helix
RNA-ribose (no thymine)
-uracil
-single twisted strand
BOTH- nucleic acid
where does transcription take place?
in the nucleus of the cell
describe the steps of transcription.
mRNA copies the genetic code from DNA template. its just like DNA replication, but only one strand acts as template. Bases pair just like in DNA, but RNA has uracil instead of thymine
name the nitrogen bases of RNA?
AUCG
what is the job of mRNA?
sends a message to the ribosomes to create more of a certain type of protein
what is this strands mRNA?
ATCGGCCTTATACGGTAC
UAGCCGGAAUAUGCCAUG
what is used instead of thymine?
Uracil
where does translation take place?
in the cytoplasm at a ribosome
describe the steps of translation?
mRNA goes to ribosome, tRNA translate to code carried by mRNA, mRNA and tRNA link codons and in doing so, link the amino acids, whch form a polypeptide chain which folds into proteins
what is the job of tRNA?
tRNA has an anticodon that matches to mRNA's codon which helps link together amino acids
what RNA deals with the codon?
mRNA
what RNA deals with the anticodon?
tRNA
when amino acids are linked together, what does it do and form?
forms a polypeptide chain which are folded into proteins
what are the steps to protein synthesis?
translation and transcription
what can never leave the nucleus?
DNA
what is the difference between a codon and anticodon?
codons are mRNA that tell ribosomes what amino acids to search for.
anticodons are what are searched for by ribosomes that match with the codons
why is there a start and stop message during protein synthesis and what are they?
start gets the ribosome to start working and stop makes the ribosome release the polypeptide chain. start=AUG stop=UGA
relate the structure of a ribosome to its function?
the ribosome has a small and large subunit that clamp to the mRNA which slides along through it. the A and P sites read the mRNA and find the correct anticodon with the amino acid to attatch to the chain.
know how to draw chromosome, and label parts, and their functions.
DO IT NOW!
list 3 characteristics of asexual reproduction?
-one 'parent call' is needed
-offspring are genetically similar to the parent
-mitosis
during the cell cycle, what does G1 represent? S? G2? what is G0?
G1= growth one
S= synthesis (DNA replication happens)
G2= growth 2
G0= what brain cells and nerve tissue go through
what does G1, S, and G2 make up?
interphase
know how to draw all stages of mitosis and meisos and explain what is happening
\./ \./
/ \ / \
list 3 characteristics of sexual reproduction?
-in order to create an offspring, 2parents of the opposite sex required
-offspring is genetically different from parent
-occurs only in gamates
-meiosis
what is a haploid?
1 set of chromosomes
what is a diploid?
2 sets of chromosomes
what are gametes? somatic cells?
gametes= eggs and sperm (both haploid)
somatic cells=all other body cells (diploids)
what are autosomes and how many do humans have? (set and number)
autosomes are non sexual chromosomes. there are an equal number in females and males. 22 pairs chromosomes
what are sex chromosomes and how many do humans have?
sex chromosomes are chromosomes that determine gender there are 1 pair of sex chromosomes