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11 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

DNA isolation

to remove DNA from nucleus

we must: break apart cell using buffer that solubilizes DNA

digest away proteins (histones)

precipitate DNA

purify DNA

Gene Cloning

technique to amplify DNA and make protein

cloned genes can be expressed in prokaryotic or euk cells

amplifying DNA

polymerase chain reaction (PCR): technique the amplifies the quantity of DNA by mixing that DNA sample with nucleotides, specific primers, and a heat-tolerant DNA polymerase

this is a cell-free system, unlike gene cloning

PCR uses

paternity testing

blood, semen, fingerprint analysis

genetic testing

HIV testing

Sequencing DNA

Sanger method is most common

used to be determined by looking at gel

it can tell if there is a mutation that could cause a disease

Genetic Sampling & Screening

two different methods:

1. amniocentesis: sample of amniotic fluid surrounding baby

2. chorionic villus sampling: sample of placenta


display of chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape


method used to determine karyotype. this can detect abnormalities in chromosome number or structure

chromosomal alterations

each chromosome has a short arm (p) and a long arm (q)

there can be alterations to whole chromosomes:

-gain of a chromosome (trisomy)
-loss of a chromosome (monosomy)

alterations within a chromosome

deletion of genes

duplication of genes

inversion of genes

translocation of genes


family tree showing the phenotypes of family memberes for a certain trait

can sometimes show if a family member is a carrier

***pedigree interpretation!!!