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11 Cards in this Set

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DNA isolation

to remove DNA from nucleus


we must: break apart cell using buffer that solubilizes DNA


digest away proteins (histones)


precipitate DNA


purify DNA

Gene Cloning

technique to amplify DNA and make protein


cloned genes can be expressed in prokaryotic or euk cells



amplifying DNA

polymerase chain reaction (PCR): technique the amplifies the quantity of DNA by mixing that DNA sample with nucleotides, specific primers, and a heat-tolerant DNA polymerase


this is a cell-free system, unlike gene cloning

PCR uses

paternity testing


blood, semen, fingerprint analysis


genetic testing


HIV testing

Sequencing DNA

Sanger method is most common


used to be determined by looking at gel


it can tell if there is a mutation that could cause a disease

Genetic Sampling & Screening

two different methods:


1. amniocentesis: sample of amniotic fluid surrounding baby


2. chorionic villus sampling: sample of placenta

karyotype

display of chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape

karyotyping

method used to determine karyotype. this can detect abnormalities in chromosome number or structure

chromosomal alterations

each chromosome has a short arm (p) and a long arm (q)


there can be alterations to whole chromosomes:

-gain of a chromosome (trisomy)
-loss of a chromosome (monosomy)


alterations within a chromosome

deletion of genes


duplication of genes


inversion of genes


translocation of genes



pedigree

family tree showing the phenotypes of family memberes for a certain trait


can sometimes show if a family member is a carrier


***pedigree interpretation!!!