Genetic Engineering And Biotechnology: Recombinant DNA Technology

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Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
1.
A. Recombinant DNA Technology

Recombinant DNA is DNA that has been artificially created. It involves taking one piece of DNA and combining it with another piece of DNA. By combining two or more strands of DNA, scientists form a new strand of DNA.

Gene Transfer using Plasmids

• In order to transfer one strand of DNA from one species to another, a host cell is needed. E. coli is often used as a host cell for gene transfer because it not only has circular DNA, but also a smaller ring of independent, self-replicating DNA called a plasmid.
• Plasmids are removed from a cell and broken apart using a restriction endonuclease. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that have the property
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• Forensic Investigations
Suspects/victims are identified using DNA samples found in the crime scene
In order for a person to convicted, the person’s DNA profile should be an exact match to the profile of crime scene DNA

C. Karyotyping

Karyotyping is used to test for chromosome abnormalities. It shows the number and how the chromosomes look in an organism’s nucleus by using cells from a prenatal diagnosis. Chromosomes are arranged into karyotypes according to size and structure. They are created from chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis

Chorionic Villus Sampling

At 10-12 weeks of pregnancy, a tube is inserted into the cervix in order to remove a sample of placenta.

Amniocentesis

At 14-16 weeks of pregnancy, a needle is used to remove amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus in order to obtain fetal
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Find the location of all of these genes on the human chromosomes ii. Find the base sequence of the human genome o Three outcomes of sequencing the human genome:
i. Easier to identify genetic diseases ii. More information on the origins, evolution and migration of human iii. Allows the manufacturing of pharmaceutical drugs based on the DNA base sequences of a gene

3. Cloning

o Clone- Genetically identical organisms and cells that were produced from one parent o Cloning using somatic-cell nuclear transfer
Dolly the Sheep used as an example.
i. Udder cells were taken from a sheep and grown in a culture in a lab ii. Unfertilized egg was taken from another sheep and the nucleus was removed iii. Using electricity, the udder cell and egg were fused together iv. The fused cell developed as if it had been fertilized, producing a zygote and then an embryo
v. The embryo was implanted into a surrogate mother sheep vi. Dolly was born, with the exact same DNA as the sheep from who the udder cells were taken from

o Ethical issues surrounding therapeutic cloning

Arguments for… Arguments against…
➢ Reduces suffering and relieves pain
➢ Can save lives since it can replace tissues and

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