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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What did early theorists believe about women

Women were inferior

Leta Hollingsworth's research

She worked at a mental institution and saw there were more male patients there because women with mental issues can still get married. And there are not really any other options. Women don't need to be intelligent to fit into society. SOCIETAL EXPECTATIONS = women dont' develop as much as men. (that is why not so much variablity for women as men)

Dr. Ben Barres research

He was a transexual whose research was valued much more when he was a man than when he was a woman.

greater male variability hypothesis and the contributing researchers

Gender differences in general intelligence

There is no difference

Gender differences on perceptual speed

Females are better from age 4 onward

gender differences in learning and memory

No overall difference

gender differences in auditory thresholds

Women are more sensitive to higher frequencies

React more strongly to sound intensity

gender differences in verbal performance

Women better at anagrams and men are better at analogies boys are 3-4 times more likely to stutter and 5-10 times more likely to be dyslexic

biological explanations for cognitive differences

no major differences

social-affective explanation for gender differences in cognitive performances

pg 253: Training and experience: the more experience the better they get at a task

Gender-role socialization: people reinforce stereotypes and roles and students then perform better at things related to their gender

Self-confidence: more confidence in doing gender related tasks (stereotype threat)

Motivation: toward areas the individual attached value.

Be able to define and understand "double standard"

Women are sexual gatekeepers & men are driven by their sexual drive and can't control themselves.

Understand similarities between men and women regarding human sexuality, sexual drive and responsiveness

Arousal, Plateau, Orgasm, Resolution

Vasocongestion (accumulation of blood in the blood vessels and of a particular region)Myotonia (muscle contraction)

Masters and Johnson’sresearch including biases and criticisms

Willing to have sex on a table

Women had to practice mastrobation

Higher intelligence

Coached through the whole process (emotional part is out) very formulaic.

what the research saysregarding vaginal and clitoral orgasms

pretty much a myth (vagina is not sensitive)

No difference between the two.

Anne Peplau’s (2003) fourdimensions in men’s and women’s sexuality

1. Sexual desire: Men have more but other factors that influence (ie: danger) So... its actually the same.

2. Relationship context of sexuality (women watch 50 shades of gray (women = emotion) Men = porn = physical.

3. Aggression and sexuality: Men defined themselves as aggressive/dominant

4. Fluidity and changeability of sexuality: women are less strict/can like men & women (heterosexual) change every 5 years, men don't change as much b/c of the boxes (more dangerous for men to move toward female side.)

the reported frequency ofpremarital intercourse in heterosexual adults and age of first intercourse

becoming sexual much younger (like 15) and more partners (but those who have over 20 = really not very many ... like 1%)

sexually violentpornography affects behavior and know about coercive sexuality

violent porn desentizes - increases amount of rape, increases aggression toward women.

sexually violent pornography affects behavior and know about coercive sexuality


rape = most underreported time, Men's rape is done by stangers, women's rape is done by someone she knows. Rape = "caused" by drugs and alcohol. College campuses = highest rates of rape.

Martital rape (read section)

More submissive = more likely to be raped.

Know the four phases ofhuman sexual response according to Masters & Johnson, and the twophysiological processes associated with these phases

Know the differences inmen’s and women’s sexual fluidity

homophobia in our societyand who is most at risk for stigmatization

FOCUS on this one~~~

stigma in our culture

More issues amongst men than women

should be replaced by sexual prejudice because homophobia is too limited sees homosexuality as an illness and is based on fear

Know how women’s physiologyand reproductive systems have been viewed

Type of disease, unclean

Know the stages of themenstrual cycle

1. Follicular phase

2. Ovulation (high estorgen)

3. Luteal phase (high progesterone)

4. Menstuation.

Menstuation = Sending hormones to decrease others (negative feedback)

research says about menstrual cycles and criminal behavior

There is not really a link between criminal behavior and menstrual cycles

women’s experiences withand attitudes toward menarche

First onset of menturation (air of embarrassment (secrecy)

Mothers are the main source of information for their daughters but don't share from their experiences.

onset of puberty for boys

Spermarche = first ejaculation

physical and emotionalaspects of pregnancy

Hormones go up

Pregnant women = culturally seen as hysterical

many mood swings

increased happiness or excitement is not always because of hormones but more so due to the excitement of the baby

Study: woman who was pregnant got more space in the elevator.

the medical model viewmenopause and what are the attitudes toward menopause?

Seen as a disease (ie: medicated similarly to those who have diabeties)

Negative attitudes/expectations

the research on malemenopause (read this)

No specific age, Andropause (cyclic mood, thinning of the ejaculate, reduction of ejaculatory pressure and decrease in levels of FSH and LH)

Link between male cylcle and week cycle...

hysteria, agoraphobia, tuberculosis, and eating disorders in gender differences

hysteria and eating disorders are mostly womenagoraphobia - mostly women alcoholism - more men cause it is more socially acceptableantisocial - more men

Are men or women more vulnerable? Who has higher rates of depression? Which physical health symptoms are associated with which sex? Which mental illnesses are associated with which gender?

women are higher rates of depression - because of rummative behaviorswomen more vulnerable for diabetesmen are more vulnerable and die more - more baby males die at higher ratesmore likely to suffer injury and deathsex linkedphysical healthmenkidney, heart disease, lung disease, prostatewomen - strokes, diabetes, kidney, breast

In regard to strength and weight training, know how it is different between the sexes and how it affects men and women

women can have greater relative gains in strength in comparison to mensame increase of muscle size

gender differences in life expectancy and susceptibility to disease

men have short life expectancy (at 100 1 man to every 4 women) and re more likely to succcumb to a variety of serious diseases metablic rate and fat % of women can be protectivemonk’s and nuns study - they live similar lifestyles yet still men died earlieronce a disease is contracted - death rate similar for both sexesmen die from risky behaviorwomen from older agewomen exercise less

health behaviors differ between men and women

women go to doctor more and more interesting in health

do researchers explain the differences in male-female depression rates


5 reasons1. feminine role predisposes women to depression because encouraged to feel and act helplessness2. women face more stress than men and to be helpless and powerlessfamily and work3. women are particularly sensitive to stressors that relate to disruption of interpersonal relationships 4. differences are biologically based5. development model - fminine qualities occur in adolescence produce greater incidence of female depression

explain the gender differences in alcohol use

men allowed to do this inpublic (drunk in bars)women intoxicated more at home - less acceptable and it is more dangerous to drink more in public

cancer information was presented (regarding gender) in the 19th and early 20th century (lecture slides; cancer reading); what accounted for women not getting their gynecological screenings

women were more targetedfalse modestytold to be modest all of life and only husband can see you but! go to doctor to get screeningsdegrated women

What kinds of cancer kill men and what kinds of cancer kill women? Who is most likely to die from each kind (hint: look at ethnicities


Lung cancer for bothprostate for menbreast cancer for womenAfrican americans most likely to die

the results from the study by Baumgartner in 1983

when boys were told they would be girls - thought they could do lessgirls were told if you could be a boy - i can do mroe now!

how boys’ and girls’ environments (i.e., toys, rooms, etc.) differ

boys - dressed in blue, strong boy, girls -

Understand the transactional model of parental socialization

children’s characteristics of behavior

Read about cross-cultural socializations, including Bronstein’s 1984 study and Zern’s 1984 research from 100 societies

parents pay more attnetion to boys than to girlsinteract more sociably with girlsemphasize achievemnt and autonomy with boys

gender differences in childhood friendships

early childhood - mostly same sex friends

reinforcement of gender roles

research say about the content of children’s television

women shown as submissive, passive, need help from a male and under represented

relationship between gender and language

we tend to use man words like mankind

studies about childhood friendship say about gender differences

girls more ennabling and connection orientingboys- constricting and concerning with dominance

physically maturing early affect childhood/adolescent friendships

when mature early boys are praised and girls are ostracizedboth forced into heterosexual relationships

sexual harassment can affect female students

descrease self confidence

two relational styles (by gender) of friendship

men all about activities and competitionwomen relationships and emotional

Study - math/high intelligence - bembow and stanley? STUDY pg 222