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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sex
biological, physiological traits distinguishing males from females; biological influence
gender
psychological, social traits distinguishing males from females; social influence
gender identity
an individual's experience of him/herself as masculine or feminine
sexual orientation
sexual preferences of a person for an intimate partner
gender roles
social functions that society sees as suitable for a masculine vs. feminine individual
discrepancy strain
results when one fails to live up to one's internalized ideal of manhood; can produce gender role conflict; associated with reduced relationship intimacy and satisfaction
dysfunction strain
results even when one fulfills the requirements of the male code; commitment to work at expense of marriage/family; reduced romantic relationship satisfaction
trauma strain
strain resulting from the process of being socialized as male; applies to certain groups of men whose experiences with gender role strain are thought to be particularly harsh; ex. athletes, war veteran, survivors of child abuse, gay and bisexual men
pro-feminist men's movement
desire to eliminate all gender stereotypes, gender inequalities, and gender-related violence; attempt to make men aware of sexism directed toward themselves and women and to reduce it
mythopoetic men's movement
argue that modern men must develop a new vision of masculinity and achieve spiritual healing; high SES members
religious men's movement
men should take back traditional roles such as head of the household; backlash against egalitarianism
men's rights men's movement
men - not women - are the real victims of sexism, socially and legally; major goal is to fight against feminism
self-disclosure
act of revealing personal information to others; one of the defining characteristics of intimacy
idioms
when a couple has developed their codewords, inside jokes, etc.
social penetration theory
if small talk about superficial topics is rewarding, you increase in breadth and depth of topics
de-penetration
you stop sharing information and have more superficial conversations; when relationship is failing
empathetic accuracy
the ability to correctly infer another person's thoughts and emotions; what matters is accuracy, not amount of empathy
kernel of truth theory
exaggerated, but real, differences; we have a set of beliefs because there are actual differences between men and women; stereotypes exaggerate these differences
adaptive categorization theory
survival of the fittest; good to make fast decisions because we have limited cognitive resources; stereotypes are the brain's shortcuts so you can process through life a lot quicker; so we typically group people based on obvious characteristics
ingroup vs. outgroup theory
when physical resources are limited, we support peopel in our ingroups; we prefer to be around our ingroups; our ingroup has people who are similar to us, have similar characteristics, and we have a positive bias
social identity theory
everyone wants to feel good about themselves so to achieve this, we think our groups are better than others; put down the outgroups as much as possible
social role theory
there is a division of labor/home duties between men and women; we expect men/women to behave according to these roles
subtyping
we recognize smaller "types" of men and women that have their own set of traits; make small groups but still keep the rule
agency (agentic)
focus on self promotion and achievement; independent, assertive, dominant, competitive
community (communal)
focus on others and community; nice, compassionate, kind, nurturing
androgynous
high femininity and masculinity
undifferentiated
low femininity and masculinity
feminine
high femininity and low masculinity
masculine
high masculinity and low femininity
Bem's theory
Bem argues that androgyny allows for the best of both worlds; allows for flexibility when needed, depending on situation; eliminates traditional stereotypes and limiting roles for men and women
old fashioned sexism
openly see sexes as very different from each other; not seen so much today; endorse traditional gender roles, different treatment of men/women, believe women are less competent in academic/business settings
modern sexism
denial of discrimination against women; antagonism toward women's political/social demands; resentment of "special favors" like affirmative action
neosexism
individual feels conflict between egalitarian values and negative feelings about women; believe society is better off with men in charge; maintaining status quo is best for everyone
ambivalent sexism
different types of women are evaluated differently; women and men should occupy certain roles because that is the way the universe is set up and should be
hostile sexism
based on patriarchy and gender differentiation that exaggerate the differences between men and women and justifying the superiority of the dominant group
benevolent sexism
based on men's dependence on women for intimacy, sexual reproduction, and gender differentiated social roles; reflects positive feelings towards women
narrative review method of studying
read many articles, summarize them; problems: can't quantify findings, author might be biased
box-score approach to research
examine many articles, tally results; more objective, fairly precise
meta-analysis method
most popular; statistically combines results across all the studies included; can help identify moderators; directly gets at reliability, objective, tells if there is a difference and how large
stereotype threat
apprehension experienced by members of a stigmatized group that their behavior may confirm a stereotype; apprehension leads to anxiety and distraction which causes reduced performance on task
gender typing
acquisition of preferences, skills, personality traits, behaviors, and self-concepts that each culture considers gender appropriate
attraction
we are attracted to those whose presence is rewarding to us; we like being around people who make us feel good
marketplace theory
women more likely to value status in a mate, men more likely to value attractiveness; attractive women are more likely to marry financially/professionally successful men
misattribution of arousal
individuals can overlook the other influences that exist and misattribute the source of their arousal to the presence of another person; cognitive mistake, incorrectly identifying the source of arousal
comparison level (CL)
varies among individuals; perception of rewards/costs you deserve in a relationship; a ratio of how well vs. how poorly you expect to be treated
reward
anything positive/pleasurable about a relationship
cost
anything negative/undesirable about relationships
conflict
when one person's wishes or actions obstruct/impede those of someone else
dialectics
opposing forces within person that cause tensions
fatal attractions
idea that sometimes people are attracted to people that are different than they are; the thing that initially attracts will be the relationship undoing
mate poaching
behavior intended to attract someone who is already in a romantic relationship
poachers
people who steal significant others; self describe as mean, unreliable, adulterous, and erotophilic
poached
people who are stolen; high on extraversion and openness; people that have had people attempt to steal them self described as sexy, adulterous, loving; people who went along with poaching self described as mean, unreliable, neurotic, adulterous, masucline, erotophilic, and unloving
self-enhancement
showing how much better you are than the current partner; suggesting that you have a higher CLalt
loyalty
positive and passive; optimistically waiting for improvement
voice
positive and active; trying to improve conditions
exit
negative and active; harming or terminating the relationship
neglect
negative and passive; allowing conditions to deteriorate
accommodative behavior
responding constructively rather than destructively to a partner's negative behaviors; overriding impulse to strike back
romantic ideologies
prescriptive cultural scripts that dictate how love should unfold and be enacted; scripts are highly gendered; linchpin for benevolent sexism
sexual gatekeepers
women are the ones who decide when and where sex will happen
sexual economics
sex is a female resource that is exchanged for other goods (love, commitment, affection); power that declines with age and varies as a function of the market value
sexual double standard for women
women are expected to be sexy but don't have the same permission to be sexual; women with multiple partners tend to be vilified (sluts) whereas men are lauded (studs)