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13 Cards in this Set

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Incubation Period
The incubation period is the interval between the pathogen's invasion of the body and the appearance of symptoms of infection. During this stage, the organisms are growing and multiplying. The length of incubation may vary. For example, the common cold has an incubation period of 1 to 2 days, whereas tetanus has an incubation period ranging from 2 to 21 days
Prodromal Stage
A person is most infectious during the prodromal stage. Early signs and symptoms of disease are present, but these are often vague and nonspecific, ranging from fatigue and malaise to a low-grade fever. This period lasts from several hours to several days. During this phase, the patient often does not realize that he or she is contagious. As a result, the infection spreads.
Full Stage of Illness
The presence of specific signs and symptoms indicates the full stage of illness. The type of infection determines the length of the illness and the severity of the manifestations. Symptoms that are limited or occur in only one body area are referred to as localized symptoms, whereas symptoms manifested throughout the entire body are referred to as systemic symptoms.
Convalescent Period
The convalescent period is the recovery period from the infection. Convalescence may vary according to the severity of the infection and the patient's general condition. The signs and symptoms disappear, and the person returns to a healthy state. However, depending on the type of infection, the person may have a temporary or permanent change to his or her previous health state even after the convalescent period.
Laboratory Data indicating an Infection: Neutrophils
Normal 60%–70% Increased in acute infections that produce pus; increased risk for acute bacterial infection if decreased; may also be increased in response to stress.
Laboratory Data indicating an Infection: Lymphocytes
Normal = 20%–40% Increased in chronic bacterial and viral infections
Laboratory Data indicating an Infection: Monocytes
Normal = 2%–8% Increased in severe infections and function as a scavenger or phagocyte
Laboratory Data indicating an Infection: Eosinophil
Normal = 1%–4% May be increased in allergic reaction and parasitic infection
Laboratory Data indicating an Infection: Basophil
Normal = 0.5%–1% Usually unaffected by infections
The nurse teaches a patient at home to use clean technique when changing a wound dressing. This is:
a. The nurse's preference
b. Safe for the home setting
c. Unethical behavior
d. Grossly negligent
In the home setting, where the patient's environment is more controlled, medical asepsis is usually recommended, with the exception of self-injection. This is the appropriate procedure for the home and is neither unethical nor grossly negligent.
A nurse is caring for an obese 62-year-old patient with arthritis who has developed an open reddened area over his sacrum. A priority nursing diagnosis is:
a. Imbalanced Nutrition: More Than Body Requirements related to immobility
b. Impaired Physical Mobility related to pain and discomfort
c. Chronic Pain related to immobility
d. Risk for Infection related to altered skin integrity
The priority diagnosis in this situation is the possibility of an infection developing in the open skin area. The others may be potential or probable diagnoses for this patient and may also require nursing interventions after the first diagnosis is addressed.
A patient develops food poisoning from contaminated potato salad. The means of transmission for the infecting organism is:
a. Direct contact
b. Vector
c. Vehicle
d. Airborne
Contaminated food is a vehicle for transmitting an infection. Direct contact requires proximity between the susceptible host and an infected person. A vector is a nonhuman carrier, such as an insect, and the airborne means of transmission carries the organism in droplet nuclei or with dust.
The recommended sequence for removing soiled personal protective equipment when the nurse prepares to leave the patient's room is to remove:
a. Gown, goggles, mask, gloves, and exit the room
b. Gloves, wash hands, remove gown, mask, and goggles
c. Gloves, goggles, gown, mask, and wash hands
d. Goggles, mask, gloves, gown, and wash hands
Gloves are always removed first because they are most likely to be contaminated, and hands should be washed thoroughly after the equipment has been removed and before leaving the room.