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70 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cause of death
Specific Disease or Injury or combination of the two - initiates train of events that results in the death
Natural - CAD,Arrythmia, meningitis GSW
Mechanism death
Physical derangement that the cause of death cause which is incompatible with life -
Manner of death
Accident, Natural, Suicide, Homicide, undetermined (overdose)
Postmortem change
Gaseous distention of tissues
Begins early after death - loose tissues - neck, eyes, scrotum
Postmortem change
Hemolytic staining of vasculature in the skin
Pooling of blood after death dependent areas (NOT PRESSURE AREAS)
1/2-1 hrs - begins
6 hrs - blanches
10-14 hrs - fixed lividity
position of body
Tardieu spots
Vessels rupture during early decompisition - always in areas of lividity.
Rigor Mortis
Stiffining of muscles
Begins 30mins-2hrs
Fixed - 12-14hrs
Dissapates after 24hrs
Postmortem fly egg deposition
"parmesian cheese"
Abrasions (Blunt force)
Show directionality, injury to upper layers of skin, "brush burns", can be patterned or non patterned
Laceration (Blunt force)
skins is torn causing separation, tissue bridges, edges are abraded, undermining (over bones) - skin edges which may help with directionality
Sharp Force Injuries
Indent the skin, double countor (tram-track brusing) - 2 parallel linear brusies with a central area of pattern - measure zone of pallor to approximate size of weapon
Coup and Contra-coup injuries
Only deals with brain bruises - moving head hitting a stationary object , usually fracture with coup (small), contracoup (is opposite)
Driver vs Passenger
Dicing Injuries
Side windows - angled or cubed
Bumper of car - Primary
Pedistrian thrown on the car - Secondary
Impact with environment Tertiay
Bumper Injuries
Pt standing
Accelerating - bumper will raise
Decelerating - bumper will lower
Overstretching injuries
Yellow superficial skin separates in the groin areas - pedestrian was struck from rear
Contact GSW
Muzzle imprint, stellate, soot and gunpowder are imbedded in tissue
Near contact - within 2-3 inches
Round entrance wound, soot, gunpowder stippling over a small area, muzzle flame may burn the skin edges
Close - 6-8 inches
Round entrance wood, no soot, gunpowder stippling
Contact GSW - ABD - Chest
No stellate wound, because gasses dissapate.
Entrance Wound only
Greater than 2 feet, or intermediate target (clothing)
Entrance Wound
Typically round, abrasion collar, tissue deficit
Exit Wounds
Irregular in shape, look like lacerations, edges able to be reapproximated, clean edges
Skull GSW Wounds
Directionality - Entrance - Bevel inward
Shotgun wounds
Smooth bullet wounds, cartidge (wading), 4 inches together, 26 inches (wad opens "petal shape" - wounding related to wading), 39
inches - cluster of pellets, 6ft or greater - pellets dissapate
Imparts rifling marks
Sharp Force Injuries - Stab wound
Blunt edge and sharp edge, rare brusing
Deeper than Long
Incise Wonder
Longer than deep
Serrated Knife
Can't with a stab wound, if knife dragged along skin, leave a pattern to compare to the knife in question.
Heat related deaths
Pugelistic appearance - flexion of arms, wrist, hands, knees come in, feet come out.
Skin splits
Heat related fractures
Epidural Hemorrhage
In charred body is artifactual - from bone marrow in skull
Alive or Dead at time of fire
Carboxyhemoglobin, smokers -8-10%, >10% alive
Inhaled smoke and soot - Layer of mucous admixed with smoke in bronchi
Cherry red lividity
Cherry red lividity
Cold exposure
Cherry red lividity
Amperage is most important to determine
high voltage > 600 - burns - charring - crater like defects
Low voltage <600 - never causes skin injuries
Resistance is lowered in wet skin
.1 or 100 maps vfib
Lack of oxygen -by occluding carotid artery - uncomplicated hanging rarely have fractures of neck
May or may not have fractures of neck (usually combination with occlusion of carotid arteries)
Compression of jugular veins - increased pressure to mucosa (mouth, conjuctivia)
No diagnostic lab test/autopsy finding
Dx of exclusion (helpful clues - frothy pulmonary edema, voluminous lungs) fish - nose, eyes, mouth
Breakdown of tissues to a gray-white wax like substance - water (moist area) 6 months
Injuries in childhood
Fingertip injuries (round/oval), rib fractures (calloused),
Impact injuries (children)
Bruises (usually under skin) can be associated with fractures
Postmortem chemistries (Vitrous)
Dehydration (inc Na, Cl, N)
Decomposition (high K)
DKA (inc Glc) + toxicology (increase acetone & isopropyl alchohol)
look for morphine, 6monoactomorphine (urine, occs blood)
Ant/Roach bites
Superficial skin lesions with irregular borders - insects feed on epidermis
Tache noire
linear black discolorations across sclera, drying artifact
Contusion (bruise)
Impact - injury to blood vessels with bleeding into the surrounding tissue
Red, blue, purple or brown
within 24 hrs
Green contusion
1-2 days (usually 4-7 days)
Yellow contusion
greater 1-2 days (usually greater than 1 week)
Adults - bruises of different ages
repeated falls - alcoholics, elderly, dementia, arthritis, previous stroke
intermediate Range
gunpowder stippling, absence of soot,
Distant range
Characteristics of an entrance wound
Circular shotgun - 3 feet
Scalloped edges -3-4 feet
Separate pellet wounds > 4 feet
High velocity rifles
Severity is because of velocity of bullet
Chop wound
clean with thin abraded edges because of the blunt thick body of the blade
Manual or ligature strangulation
Fingernail marks, older folks may fracture hyoid/thyroid cartilage
Traumatic asphyxia
situation in which breathing is comporomised due to a crush injury
Positional asphyxia
breathing is compromised because of the position of the decedent
250-300 x greater affinity of binding sites vs oxygen
CO content
house fire -10-15%
gas engine (no catalytic converter) -4-6%
diesel engine - close to zero
manufacturing illuminating gas - 30%
Natural gas is zero
CO concentration of 1% blood CO level of 75% in 15 mins
Rule of nines
18% chest & abdomen, 18% back & buttocks, 9% each front & back lowe limb, 4.5% each front/back head, 4.5% each front/back upper limb, 1.0 genital area
Voltage lines
Residential 110-120
High voltage 7500-8000
transcontiental 100,000
Lichtenberg figures
transient fern-like injury of the skin - fades over 24 hours - associated with lightening
Skin Popping
Coin size, circular scars ulcers - intra-subq injections
1/2 life less than 1 hour
benzoylecgonine 1/2 life 4-5 hrs
Cocaine + etoh
Blood alchohol
Death - 0.4%
increases 0.025% for each drink and elimination occurs between .013 & .018 g/dl hr