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255 Cards in this Set

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What is the NFPA standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers
NFPA 10
Class A Fire
fire involving ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper and cloth
Class B Fire
Fire involving flammable and combustible liquids and gases such as gas, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gasses-hydrocarbons and polar solvents.
Hydrocarbons
crude oil, gas, jet fuel and kerosene (petroleum based and float on water)
Polar Solvents
alcohol, acetone and lacquer thinner
Class C Fire
Fire involving energized electrical equipment
Class D Fire
Fire involving combustable metals
Class K Fire
Fire involving cooking devices using vegetable or animal oils and fats.
Any portable fire extinguisher that uses dry chem. or dry powder must be able to discharge _____% of its contents.
80%
Any portable fire extinguisher that uses water must have a min. _______ sec. discharge time.
45-65 sec.
Any portable extinguisher that uses agents other than dry chem. must be able to discharge ____% of its contents.
95%
Do Class D extinguishers receive a number rating?
NO
Extinguishers that use water must have a min. discharge of ___ ft. for a _____ sec. period.
30ft. , 40 sec. period.
Dry chem. and dry powder extinguisher must have a min. discharge range of ___ ft.
10 feet range
What fires are Carbon Dioxide suitable for?
Class B and C
Antifreeze agents are used in extingusishers that are used in temps. as low as _____ degrees.
40 degrees
Antifreeze agents are intended for use on ______ fires in low temps.
Class A fires
Carbon dioxide is stored in the extinguisher in a ________ state at _____ psi.
liquid , 840psi.
What is the agent in "mulit-purpose" dry chem. extinguisher.
monoammonium phosphate
What is the agent in Purple K?
Potassium Bicarbonate
Name the agent that is effective on all combustible metals?
None
Name the three types of portable fire extinguishers.
Stored pressure
Cartridge operated
Pump operated
In all occupancies, the max. travel distance to an extinghisher for Class A is...
75 feet
What is considered "with depth" for a flammable liquid fire.
1/4 inches deep at least.
Max. height for extinguishers less than 40lbs is ...
5 feet
Max. height for extinguishers more than 40 lbs is ...
3 1/2 feet
What is the min. clearance distance from the bottom of the extinguisher to the floor?
4 inches
NFPA states extinguisher inspections should happen when?
Monthly
When filling don't use a source of compressed air great than ___ psi above the operation pressure.
25 psi.
The hydro test pressure is _____ psi the working pressure stamped on the vessel.
5/3 psi.
While attacking a Class A fire, how far should you be initially with an extinguisher?
10 - 30 feet
When using a multipurpose dry chem. with lighter materials how should you approach the fire and extinguish it?
10 feet from the fire and 3 feet above.
While attacking a Class D fire, it should be covered with a ____ layer of dry powder.
2 inch
Can you use a water mist extinguisher for a Class C fire?
Yes
While attacking a Class K fire, begin application from a distance of _______ ft. away.
10-12 feet
Secondary Power Supply, this power supply must be able to make the detection and signaling system fully operational within ______ of the main power supply's failure.
30 seconds
What are the 3 basic types of basic alarm systems.
Non-Coded: Just a signal

Master Control:

Zoned: Shows Zones
Define: Auxiliary Fire Alarm System
a facility that receives signals and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to respond to these signals.
Define: Proprietary System
Each building or area will have its own system that is wired into a common receiving point somewhere on the facility.
Define: Central Station System
Like a proprietary system with an off site central recieving station.
What are the 2 types of emergency voice/alarm communications systems.
one way and two way systems
Pull stations should be mounted where?
on walls or columns no less then 3 1/2 feet and no more than 4 1/2 feet above the floor.
Rate of rise heat detectors are designed to send a signal when the rise in temp. exceeds ___degrees to ______ degrees F per min.
12-15 degrees
In a Pneumatic Rate to Rise Line Detector tubings must be limited to about ______ feet in length.
1000
In a Pneumatic Rate to Rise Line Detector the tubing should be arranged in rows that are not more than ____ feet apart and ____ feet from the walls.
30 feet, 15 feet
Describe how the ionization smoke detector works.
it contais a sensing chamber consisting to 2 charged plates and a radioactive source for ionizing the air between the plates.
What is the name of the radioactive material inside the ionization smoke detector chamber?
Americium 241
What is the other name for a Flame Detector?
Light Detector
What is the service testing for a system with lead -acid and primary (dry cell) type batteries?
Monthly
What is the service testing for a system with nickel-cadmium and sealed lead-acid type batteries?
Semi-Annually
A permanent record of all detector tests must be maintained for at least ____.
Five years
Test are not required until ____ years after the smoke detector has been installed.
15 years
If any of these systems are backup electrical generators for emergency power, those generators should be run under load monthly for at least _____.
30 minutes
Define: the Law of Specific Heat
The is the measure of the heat absorbing capacity of a substance.
Water exsists in a liquid state between what temps.
32 and 212 degrees
Define: BTU
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound 1 degree F.
Define the Law of Heat Vaporization
is the quanity of heat absorbed by a substance when it changes from a liquid to a vapor.
At 212 degrees water does what?
expands approx. 1,700 times its original volume.
Define: Specific Gravity
the density of liquids in relation to water
Define: Viscosity
the tendency of a liquid to possess internal resistance to flow
Liquids with a specific gravity less than 1 are what?
Lighter than water and will float on top of it. (hydrocarbons)
What voltage is considered "too much" for Fire Pump Service?
600 volts
Over ____ stories is considered a high rise.
7 stories
What is the most common type of metal piping for Sprinkler Systems?
Ferrous metal
The thickness of a sprinkler pipe is referred to as the pipe's ________.
Schedule
What are Copper pipings advantages over other materials?
1. resistant to coorrosion
2. low friction loss
3. lighter weight
4. better appearance.
Define ESFR?
Early Suppression Fast Responce Sprinklers
How much water can a ESFR (Early Suppression Fast Responce) sprinkler discharge.
Between 100 and 180 gpm.
How much water can a standard 1/2 inch or 17/32 inch sprinkler will discharge?
Between 15 and 50 gpm.
What is fundamental to the effectiveness of the sprinkler?
The Deflector Configuration
Define: Upright Deflector Configuration
Sprinklers designed to deflect the spray of water downward.
Define: Pendant Deflector Configuration
This sprinkler breaks the pattern of water into a circular pattern
Define: Sidewall Deflector Configuration
Designed to discharge most of its water to one side.
Define: Water Spray Nozzles
Designed to spray water in a specific pattern (typically conical)
Define: Sprig-UP
A pipe that rises vertically and supplies a single sprinkler
Define: Auxiliary Fire Alarm System
An auxiliary fire alarm system is defined as a facility that receives signals and at which personnel are in attendance at all time to respond to these signals.
Lead-acid and primary (dry cell) type batteries should be inspected __________ and nickel-cadmium and sealed lead-acid types should be inspected __________.
Monthly, Semi-annually
Define: Atmospheric Pressure
At sea level, the atmosphere exerts a pressure of 14.7 psi, which is considered standard atmospheric pressure.
Define: Head Pressure
The term head in the fire service is another way of expressing pressure. It refers to the height that a pressure can lift a column of liquid.
Define: Static Pressure
The water flow definition of static pressure is stored potential energy available to force water through pipe, fittings, and adapters
Means of Moving Water
There are 3 methods of moving water in a system...
Direct pumping system, Gravity System,
Combination System
Define: Circulation or Looped Line
When a fire hydrant receives water from two or more directions, it is said to have circulation feed or a looped line.
Define: Distributors
Distributors- arrangement of smaller mains serving individual fire hydrants and blocks of consumers
The recommended size for fire hydrant supply mains is at least ___ inches in diameter
6 inches
In high-value districts, the minimum recommended size is an ___ -inch main with cross-connecting mains every _____ feet. Twelve-inch mains may be used in long mains not cross-connected at frequent intervals.
8 inch, 600 feet
T or F: There should also be a valve on every branch feeding a hydrant so that each hydrant can be isolated during repair or replacement.
True
Valves for water systems are broadly divided into ...
Indicating and non-indicating types.
Two common indicator valves are the ______________ _____________.
Post indicator valve (PIV) and the outside stem and yoke (OS&Y).
Control valves in water distribution systems may be either ...
Gate valves or butterfly valves.
The most common type of hydrant in the US is the _______ type.
Dry-barrel
Whether they are wet barrel or dry barrel, hydrants are attached to the city main by a short piece of pipe called a ________.
Branch
A good rule of thumb is that there should be a hydrant at every intersection, and hydrants should no be spaced farther than ____ feet apart.
500 ft.
It indicates that a 500-foot separation is appropriate only where fire flow requirements are 1,750 gpm or less. A spacing as little as ______ feet is indicated where the fire flow requirements is _______ gpm or more.
200, 7,500 gpm
Hydrants should be flushed _________ to make sure that they work and to clean sedimentation from the pipes
Every year
The insurances Services Office (ISO) requires flushing a hydrant _________ for full credit
Twice a year
What are used to stabilize or balance the pressures on a water system at time of peak demand.
Elevated tanks
A fire pump is a ________ that supplies water to a fire suppression system
fixed pump
There should be ______ between sprinklers and stored materials. There should be ______ between ESFR sprinklers and stored materials.
18 inches, 36 inches
What sprinkler systems are the most reliable?
Wet-pipe Sprinkler Systems
The max distance between residential sprinklers is _____ ft.
12 ft.
The max distance of a sprinkler and a wall in a residential structure is ______ ft.
6 ft.
There are 2 types of split-case pumps...
Horizontally mounted and vertically mounted
T or F: Most horizontal split-case pumps are single-stage pumps.
True
The vertical-shaft turbine centrifugal fire pump was originally designed to pump water from _____.
Wells
Pump Drivers
Currently, there are three types of drivers that are acceptable for use with fire pumps...
Electric motors
Diesel engines
Steam turbines
Voltages in excess of _____ volts (AC) should not be used for fire pump service
600 volts
Engine Power
The engine is also required to have an over-speed shutdown device. If the governor fails to limit pump speed, this device will shut down the engine to a speed approx. _____% the rated engine speed.
20%
To ensure reliability, start and operate the engine of fire pumps for ___ minutes every week to ensure that it runs smoothly at the rated speed.
30 min.
The temperature of the fire pump room should be maintained at ______.
70 degrees
The Fire Pump Controller isolation switch lever is always located ________ the control panel.
Outside
What is the purpose of the Pilot Lamp?
Its purpose is to indicate when power is available to the pump control panel.
The above ground pipe in a pump installation must be constructed of _______.
Steel
Because 5-inch pipe is not commonly available, 6-inch pipe is the smallest size likely to be found with any pump rated at ______ gpm.
500 gpm
Define: Circulation Relief Valve
This is designed to open and provide enough water flow into and out of the pump to It prevents the pump from overheating when it is operation at churn against a closed system
Every pump is required to be provided with components for testing the installation. The most prominent of these components is the _________.
Test manifold.
When a pump is operating against a closed system, the pump is said to be operating at ________.
Churn
It is recommended that fire pumps be operated __________.
Weekly
Testing Fire Pumps
Both underground and above ground piping must be hydrostatically tested in accordance with NFPA 24 and NFPA 13, respectively. Both types of piping must be hydrostatically pressurized for ____ hours to either 200 psi or 50 psi above the maximum static pressure, which ever is higher.
2 hours
Define: Class 1 standpipe systems
are primarily for use by fire fighting personnel trained in handling large handlines.
Define: Class II Standpipe Systems
These systems are limited to 1 ½ inch hose, for use of occupants only.
The water supply for Class 1 and Class 3 standpipe systems should provide _____ gpm for at least _____ minutes.
500 gpm , 30 min.
Define: Class III Standpipe Systems
Class 3 systems have both 2 ½ inch connections for fire department personnel and 1 ½ inch hose stations and connections for use by building occupants.
For Class 1 and 3 service, the min. riser is ____ in. for building heights less than _____ ft. and ___ in. for heights over ______ft.
4 inches, under 100 ft.
6 inches, over 100 ft.
When a Class 1 or 3 standpipe exceeds _____ ft. in height, the top 100 feet is allowd to be _____ in. pipe.
100 ft., 4 inches
Define: Manual Dry Standpipe System
A system that does not have a permanent water supply and is supplied only through a fire department connection.
Define: Semiautomatic Dry Standpipe System
A dry standpipe system that is arranged to admit water into the system when a remote control device is activated at the hose stations
Define: Manual Wet Sprinkler System
This system is maintained full of water from a small source that is incapable of supplying the system demand. A fire department connection must be used to supply system demand
Pneumatic Rate-to-Rise Line Detector- the tubing in these systems must be limited to about 1,000 feet in length. The tubing should be arranged in rows that are not more than ___ feet apart and ____ feet from walls.
30 feet, 15 feet
When one pump intakes from the discharge of another, the pumps are said to be arranged in _______.
Series
Pressure-Regulating Devices-
Where the discharge pressure at a hose outlet exceeds ____ psi, NFPA 14 requires a pressure-regulating, or restricting, device to limit the pressure to _____ psi.
100 psi., 100 psi.
Inspecting and Testing Standpipes-
The system should be hydrostatically tested at a pressure of at least _____ psi for _______ to ensure tightness and integrity of fittings. If the normal operating pressure is greater than 150 psi the system should be tested at ____ psi greater than its normal pressure.
200 psi., 2 hours, 50 psi.
Fire loss data reveal that automatic sprinklers have a ______% reliability factor when installed and maintained properly.
96%
Define: Sprinkler Head
is that portion of the sprinkler system that senses the fire, reacts to that sense, and then delivers the water to the fire area
Define: Frangible Bulbs
they contain liquids that expand when heated. The expansion of the liquid within the bulb increases vapor pressure. Once a vapor pressure is reached that exceeds the strength of the bulb, the bulb breaks, allowing water to flow.
Under conditions of ordinary room temperatures, a sprinkler with a temperature rating of _________ degrees F is most frequently used.
135-170 degrees
Sprinkler System Piping
The main drawback of plastic pipe is that it may not be installed in areas where the ambient temp. exceeds ____ degree F.
120 degrees F
Types of Sprinkler Systems-
The more common types of sprinkler systems in use today include the following:
Wet-pipe system
Dry-pipe system
Deluge system
Pre-action system
Define: Water Columning
If too much water enters the pipe above the valve it can exert enough pressure against the air seat to hold the valve closed. This condition is called water columning.
Define: Pre-action Sprinkler System
A pre-action system is used when it is especially important that water damage be minimized, even if the sprinkler pipes accidentally break.
Define: Class 1 materials
These products are generally noncombustible and stored on wooden pallets in ordinary packaging.
Define: Class 2 Materials
Also a noncombustible commodity but packaged in wooden crates or multilayered carboard cartons.
Define: Class 3 Materials
These commodities are made of combustible materials such as wood, paper, or certain plastics, irrespective of pallets or packaging.
___________ sprinkler systems are the most reliable of all sprinkler systems.
Wet-pipe
Waterflow Alarms should be tested ___________.
Quarterly
According to NFPA 25, the Main Drain Test should be conducted _________.
Annually
A dry-pipe valve should be full flow trip tested every _____ years to ensure that the air seat has not become stuck and that the clapper valves will move freely.
3 years
The trip test of dry-pipe valve permits water to __________.
Flow into the system.
NFPA 25 states that whenever a sprinkler system or underground system has been taken out of service, a tag must be placed on the ____.
FDC
According to records kept by the NFPA, approximately ___ of fire fatalities occur in residential occupancies.
80%
The survivable conditions were considered to be the following:
1. Maximum gas temperature at eye level ?
2. Maximum ceiling surface temperature?
3. Maximum carbon monoxide concentration ?
1. 200 degrees F
2. 500 degrees F
3. 1,500 parts per million
A minimum ____-minute supply is required for systems designed in accordance with NFPA 13D and a minimum __-minute supply is required for systems designed in accordance with NFPA 13R.
10 min. 30 min.
NFPA 13D requires only ____ gpm for any sprinkler. If there are two or more sprinklers, each requires ____ gpm as a maximum required water supply. In addition, the water supply needs only to supply this flow rate for ____ minutes.
18 gpm, 13 gpm, 10 min.
NFPA 13R The water supply for these larger buildings is required to supply the sprinklers for ____ minutes.
30 min.
The basic spacing for sprinklers in residential systems is a maximum of ____ square feet per sprinkler.
144 sq. ft.
The maximum spacing between sprinklers is __ feet with the maximum allowable distance of a sprinkler from a wall being ___ feet.
12 ft. , 6 ft.
What type of system is best suited for applications in commercial cooking hoods, plenums, ducts and associated cooking appliances.
A Wet Chemical System
The tanks in a Chemical Extinguishing Systems, must be located as close to the discharge point as possible, but they should also be in an area with a temperature range of ______.
40 degrees F to 120 degrees F
Gaseous Systems
Used most commonly on …
Radio and TV equipment rooms
Computer Rooms
Areas containing equipment of high value
Flammable liquid storage and dispensing areas
Printing presses
Total flooding systems are designed to deliver at least a _____% concentration of carbon dioxide into an enclosed area.
34%
T or F: Carbon Dioxide systems exist as either high-pressure systems or as low-pressure systems. The low-pressure system is for much SMALLER hazards.
False
Foam Extinguishing Systems
Typical locations for foam extinguishing systems include ...
Flammable liquids processing or storage facilities, aircraft hangars, and rolled paper or fabric storage facilities.
The foam concentrate inlet to the eductor should not be more than ___ feet above the liquid surface of the foam concentrate
6 feet
IFSTA defines a hand line nozzle as “an nozzle that one to ____ firefighters can safely handle that flows less than ____ gpm”
3 FF, 350gpm
Any Dry Chem. Exting. must use ___ % of its contense.
80%
Any other Exting. must use ____% of its contense.
95%
A portable exting. that uses water stored under pressure must have a min. ____ft. over ______ sec. discharge time.
30 ft. 40 sec.
What does RTI stand for?
Responce Time Index- has to do with the time it takes a sprinkler to respond.
Anti-Freeze sprinkler systems are limited to ____ gallons? (and why?)
40 gallons, due to cost considerations.
What is the standard RTI (Rapid Time Index)?
144 ft/sec.
What is the Fast Responce RTI?
90 ft./sec.
What is the distance between standpipes in a "non-sprinklered" building?
150 ft.
Stand Pipe Systems- Should be divided into Zones in buildings over ____ ft. high.
275 ft.
Class II Stand pipe system- In a building less than 50ft. what is the min. riser size?
2 in.
Class II Stand pipe system- In a building greater than 50ft. what is the min. riser size?
2 1/2 in.
What psi. is required to raise one pound of water one foot?
0.434 psi.
ESFR Discharge Range?
100-180 gpm
Standard Sprinkler Discharge GPM Range?
15-50 gpm
NFPA 72 requires that pull stations be placed within ____ feet of every exit.
5 feet
Most codes do not require manual alarm initiating devices in structures that are ____________.
Fully Sprinklered, with a system that sounds a local alarm with water flow.
Name the two types of Fire Protection Systems.
Fire detection systems and Fire suppression system.
Fire protection system can either be______or__________
Active or passive.
Explain the difference between active and passive fire detection and suppression systems.
Active = System that activate alarm in some fashion.

Passive = System part of the construction of a building.
What is the three E's of prevention
Education, Engineering and Enforcement.
Property loss is ____% less in building with sprinkler system
85 %
In a fire detection system what does a "Trouble signal" indicate?
A problem with the fire alarm itself.
In a fire detection system what does a "Supervisory signal" indicate?
A problem with the accessory of the system.
What are the specifics of the fixed-temperature heat detectors?
They are among the slowest to activate, inexpensive and usually non resettable.
Fixed-temperature heat detectors usually sounds an alarm when temperatures exceed_____F?
135 degrees Fahrenheit or higher.
How many percent of fire deaths are attributed to smoke inhalations?
65 percent.
What are one of the least expensive alarm detector?
Fixed-temperature heat detectors.
Ate the fixed-temperature heat detector resettable?
No, not typically.
Are the fixed-temperature heat detector fast or slow to react?
Slow.
What type of fires does a photo-electric smoke detector work best on?
More quickly on a smoldering fire.
Do you need to reset a photo-electric smoke detector?
No, it reset itself.
What type of fires does a ionization smoke detector work best on?
Response more quickly to flaming fires.
What is "Stack effect"
Naturally occurring vertical movement of air in a building.
Another word for "Stack effect"?
"Chimney effect"
How does "Stack/Chimney effect" occur?
Due to different temperature of a buildings exterior and interior.
Air rises when the temperature is_______on the inside than the outside?
Warmer.
What is it called when the air/smoke travels more vertically downward a building?
"Negative" or "Reversed stack effect"
Define "Stratification"
Formation of smoke into layers due to differences in density.
Why does the buoyancy reduced in a sprinkled building?
Cooling of the smoke.
Define "Pyrolysis"
Thermal or chemical decomposition of fuel matter because of heat.
HVAC is a non dedicated smoke control system?
True.
Advantages of non dedicated smoke systems.
* Less chance of failure due to every day operation.
* Lower cost.
* Less space needed.
Advantages for dedicated smoke systems.
* Simple operation and control.
* Less chance of modification during maintenance.
* Less likely to be affected by failure of other building systems.
Walls, partitions, floors, and fire doors are examples of what type of smoke control?
Passive smoke control.
What are the two types of pressurized smoke control systems?
Positive and negative pressure systems.
Two negative features of "Positive pressure smoke control systems"
May force smoke into unintended areas of a building.
They do not aid in removing the smoke.
Another names of "Smoke dilution" are...
Smoke purging, Smoke removal, Smoke exhaust or Smoke extraction.
When is smoke dilution most frequently used?
During post fire clean up.
How much does one gallon of water weigh?
8.34 lbs.
The main factor in determining the type of extinguisher in a structure is......
Type of occupancy.
most common type of stored pressure extinguisher?
APW
What is used to pressurize dry-chem extinguishers?
Nitrogen.
What condition must be met if a single generator is the fire alarm systems primary power supply?
A trained operator must be on duty 24 hours a day.
Five factors that deteremends which type of fire alarm system is appropriate for the occupancy?
1. Levels of safety hazards.
2. Structural features of the building.
3. Levels of hazards.
4. Availability of fire suppression resources.
5. State and local codes.
Explain the operation of a frangible bulb heat detector.
Designed to fail at a specific temperature.
What two gases does the fire-gas detector monitor?
Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide.
Which alarm system might be designed to pressurize a stairwell for evacuation?
Auxiliary system.
Type of alarm that transmit both a visible and audible alarm on the immediate premise only?
Local system.
What type of pull station sends a signal that reflects its location in the system?
Coded.
Slowest type of automatic detector?
Heat detector.
Detector used to monitor a large area?
Continues line detector.
Smoke inhalation causes about_____% of fire daths?
65%.
What type of detector responds more quickly to a flaming fire?
Ionization detector.
Which type of detector require a flickering flame action to activate?
Infrared.
What is the recommended way of cleaning dust or dirt from initiation and indicating devices?
Vacuming.
Sensitivity testing should be preformed on a smoke detector's first year and every_____year after that?
2 years.
Define elevation?
Above and below ground level.
Most common water source for private water supply?
Municipal water supply.
What is the primary was water extinguishes fire?
Coolin.
How can you tell if it is a dry barrel hydrant?
Operating nut on top of the hydrant.
1.000-1.499 GPM hydrant has what color?
Green.
Greatest issue when using elevated tanks as fire protection?
Limited pressure available.
Required duration of water supplies for standpipe and hose systems?
30 minutes.
Main function of a fire pump?
Increase pressure of the water.
NFPA 20?
Installation, testing and maintenance of fire pumps.
Commonly the lowest rated capacity for fire pumps?
500 gpm.
Lowest permitted pressure rating for a standard fire pump?
40 psi.
When all discharges are closed the pump is operating at?
Churn.
Which fire pump require less maintenance, electric or diesel?
Diesel.
A diesel pump driver's adjustable governor is required to maintain engine speed within a _____% range?
10%
What type of pump is used to prevent false starts of fire pumps due to fluctuating pressure?
Pressure maintenance pump.
What relief valve is designed to prevent the fire pump of overheating when at churn?
Circulation relief valve.
How long should a diesel fire pump be run during weekly pump start ups?
30 minutes
How long should an electric fire pump be run during weekly pump start ups?
10 minutes.
Approximately how fast should water leak from the fire pumps packing's?
One drop per second.
Doubling the fire pumps RPM increases the water pressure______times
4 times.
At what discharge pressure does NFPA 14 require a standpipe house outlet to have a pressure regulating device?
Exceeding 100 psi.
NFPA 14?
Standards for standpipe and hose systems.
Automatic-wet system?
Full of water at all times and capable of automatic suppression.
When are preaction system used?
When water damage is a problem.
Classification of fastest burning plastics are?
Group A.
Who has the fundamental responsibility to restore an automatic sprinkler system?
The buildings owner.