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399 Cards in this Set

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Species richness
a county of the number of species in a given area
Species diversity
a measure of abundance of species as well as the number of different species in a community
Mullerian mimicry
a situation when noxious prey items resemble each other in appearance, resulting in a warning signal
Batesian mimicry
a situation where edible or non-toxic prey items resemble noxious species to gain protection fro predation
Keystone species
a species that has a great impact on its community; removal of this species causes the community to be disturbed
a species' unique habitat requirements
Climax community
a stable group of species that have intricate interaction
an interaction that benefits one participant without harming the other participant
Niche differentiation
competing species adapt to separate habitat requirements, resulting in reduced competition and divergence in lifestyle
Interspecific competition
competition for resources between individuals of differing species
Intraspecific competition
competition for resources between individuals of the same species
Constitutive defenses
defenses that are always present in an organism
Inducible defenses
defenses that are expressed only in the presence of a predator
interacting species within a defined area
mimicry, camouflage, schooling, weapon
Co-evolutionary arms race
participants in an interaction respond to the pressure of another species by adapting to the force exerted by that predator, and then thhe siatuion reverses, continuing over evolutionary time
the ability of a community to recover from disturbance
the ability of a community to withstand disturbance
the disruption of a community due to a removal of a species or a group of species
Pioneering species
the first species to colonize a disturbed habitat, typically weedy
the recovery of a community to disturbance
Competitive exclusion principle
when two species compete for a resource, the speces more suited to that nice, the strong competitor, will eliminate the other from the habitat
Considering the global nitrogen cycle, what is the limiting portion of the cycle for plants?
How could you test whether male dewlaps (a color flap of skin hanging from an anolis lizard's throat) were an important cue for female egg production?
If the last remaining population of a particular bird species were all highly related, which type of diversity would be of greatest concern when planning to keep species from going extinct?
Some birds follow moving swarms of army ants in the tropics. As the ants march along the forest hunting insects and small vertebrates, birds follow and pick off any insects or small vertebrates that fly or jump out of the way of the ants. This is an exmample of what kind of species interaction?
The competitive exclusion principle states that:
What is the main difference between a disturbance and a disturbance regime?
Which of the following criteria have to be met in order for a species to qualify as invasive?
Which of the following examples best illustrates classical conditioning?
Which of the following is not a type of consumption?
You have captured some rats from a wild population and quickly surmise with tests that they are very good at avoiding food with poisons. What would best explain this observation?
You stumble across a red, yellow, and black banded snake while traveling in Texas. You somehow remember that this could be a poisonous coral snake or a harmless milk snake, but you forget how to differentiate them because they both have similar colors and banding patterns. You wisely decide not to pick up the snack. What defense was successful in preventing you from grabbing the snake?
a group of individual populations
a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same place at the same time
Survivorship curve
a plot of the logarithm of survivors versus age
Population dynamics
changes in population size over time
Density dependent factors:
factors caused by population size
Density independent factors
factors that are independent of population size that change the number of individuals in a population
Population cycles
regular patterns in a given population
Life table
summarizes the probability that an individual will survive and reproduce over its lifetime
the amount of female offspring produced by each female
the average amount of time between the mother's first offspring and her daughter's first offspring
Population viability analysis
the likelihood a population will avoid extinction for a given amount of time
Carrying capacity (K)
the maximum number of individuals that a habitat can support
Age structure
the proportion of individuals of a certain age in a population
the proportion of offspring that survive to a particular age
the study of factors that affect population size and structure
Population Ecology
the study of how and why populations change
Life history
the way an individual lives, reproduces and grows
What can we not determine from examining age pyramids of human populations
a behavior that contains information
conditional strategy
a behavior that depends on environmental conditional
a behavior that has a cost to the individual that performs it
a behavior that is not learned
a change in behavior based on a specific experience
a movement that changes an individual's position
reciprocal altruism
a relatively equal exchange of fitness benefits by nonrelatives
a signal performed by one individual to affect the behavior of another
a signal that initiates an innate behaviors
classical conditioning
an individual is trained by experience to act a particular way
long distance movement (piloting=landmarks, compass, true)
movement toward or away from a stimulus
recognition and response to data, allowing for the formation of concepts and insights
kin selection
selection that benefits an individual's relatives
Requirements of reciprocal altruism
stable memory, stable groups, low cost, penalties
hamilton's rule
the benefit and relatedness of a recipient of altruism must be high than the cost of the behvaior for the individual performing the altruism
the mechanism of a behavior, or how the animal performs the behavior
the reason an animal performs a behavior, or why an animal acts the way it does
If is rather easy to understand why relatives help each other in the animal kingdom-they share some of the same genes, and some self-sacrificing behavior will help the greater sum of their genes. What would be a reason for self-sacrificing behavior to have evolved in animals that are unrelated?
In the size-advantage hypothesis, if a group of fishes are living in a territory dominated by a single male, females should switch from female to male when they become very large. Which of the following observations best supports this hypothesis?
What was the main reason the honeybees switched from the "round dance" to the "waggle dance"?
You observe a species of bird that, upon hatching, has contact with its parents only while being fed. You also never hear the parents sing during the feeding process. What would you propose about song learning in this species of bird?
You see young spiders hatch from eggs and within 5 hours, they are dispersing far from their parents and forming webs. What can you hypothesize about their behavior?
a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same place at the same time
a group of species that live in the same geographic area that interact with each other
Invasive species
a non-native species that is introduced and spreads in a new habitat, eliminating non-native species
Biomes are characterized
a terrestrial ecosystem that has a characteristic vegetation type
all organisms in a particular area, including non-living factors
Emergent vegetation
aquatic plants that grow above the water's surface
Variation of rainfall
based on air currents at differing latitudes
Biomes are characterized
by vegetation
caused by tilt of earth
Tropical Wet forest
high productivity, steady temperature, high variation precipitation
Boreal forest
high variation of temperature, low steady precipitation
Most important factor in aquatic environments
living components
long term weather conditions of a geographic
Temperate grassland
moderate variation in temperature, low precipitation, moderate precipitation variation
Subtropical Desert
moderate variation, low precipitation, low variation in precipitation
non-living external factors
Artic tundra
permafrost, high variation in temp, Low precip, very cold
short term atmospheric conditions
Net primary productivity
the amount of carbon fixed per year, not including carbon released by respiration
Rain shadow
the geographic area on the inland side of a mountain range that receives little rain
the study of how organisms are distributed
the study of how organisms interact with their environment
Above ground biomass
the total mass of living plants without roots
6 biomes
tropical wet forest, subtropical desert, temperate grassland, temperate forest, boreal forest, artic tundra
Temperate forest
varying temperature, steady precipitation
What would happen ito the seasons if Eart hwere tilted 35 degrees off its orbital plane instead of the usual 23.5 degrees?
winters and summers would be more severe
Lytic Cycle
new generation of virions (mature virus)
Lysogenic Cycle
virus is incorporated into host ---> passed on to daugher cell
*includes birds*, highly diveres, eggs and live birth, first true land animals
A hard shell like covering that allows for protection, muscle attachment and avoidance of dessication found in Arthropods.
Incomplete metamorphosis:
A life cycle in which the immature forms appear to be smaller versions of the adult, reproductive stage.
Complete metamorphosis:
A life cycle that includes immature stages that look different from the reproductive, adult stage.
a scraping “tongue” found in snails and chitons.
Innovation to be on land
amniotic egg
Model organism:
An animal whose characteristics (short life span, numerous offspring, inexpensive to grow, and well studied) make it particularly suitable for use in scientific studies.
Deposit feeders:
animals that eat through a substrate, such as soil.
Suspension feeders:
animals that filter food from air or water.
animals that live inside hosts, living from their metabolic products.
belly feed, slugs and nudibranchs, no shell, use radula, move by gliding
4 groups of mollusca
bivavles, gastropods, chitons, cephalopods
Choanoflagellates vs Sponges
choanoflagellates are sessile protists, some are colonial, sponges are multicellular, sessile animals
clams, two separate shells, suspension feeder, sexual reproduction, larvae can attach to fish
How do cnidarians differ from poriferans?
cnidarians are radially symmetrical, while poriferas are asymmetrical. AND cnidarians may be active predators, while poriferans are only suspension feeders
Lobe finned fish
coelcanths, lungfish, link between fish and tetrapods
comb jellies, move with cilia, predators, self-fertilize externally
Coral bleaching
corals expel photosynthetic symbionts, turn white, die
Why are healthy corals brightly colored?
corals host symbionts with colorful photosynthetic pigments
corona: crown of cilia that allow them to feed
courtship, insulation, gliding….endothermy?
diverse, reduced coelom
egg laying mammals, fur, mammary glands
Collar flagellates
feed on bacteria, archaea, reproduce asexually by fission
flat worms, i.e. tapeworms and flukes
gutless wonders, lack body cavity, planktonic, feed on floating detritus, asexual and sexual reproduction
have hooks, absorb directly from digestive system, can self fertilize/cross fertilize
headfoot, predators, jet propulsion or crawl, highly modified eyes, change color, courtship
humans, bipedalism
hydra, jellyfish, corals, 2 forms = polyps and medusae, dominated by diploid stage
jawless, hagfish and lampreys (may live on fish)
Arthropod body plan
jointed limbs, exoskeleton, segmented body, legs and mouth parts are specialized
live at the bottom of aquatic environments
millipedes, centipedes, spiders, ticks, mites, scropoins, shrip, lobster, crabs, barnacles, pills bugs, insects
In what way are monotremes similar to more ancestral chordate lineages, as opposed to more recently evolved mammals?
Monotremes lay eggs; other mammals bear live young
nematoda, onychophora, tardigrada, arthropoda
Insect wings are oftern a result of
new habitat expansion
Non-mobile, attached to a substrate.
parasites that live externally on hosts.
placenta, born poorly developed, finish development in pounch
plated backs, radula, move like gastropods, external sexual reproduction
reproduce asexually and sexually
require water for life cycle, environmentally sensitive
Protostomes > Lophotrochozoa
rotifera, platyhelminthes, annelida, mollusca
roundworms, pinworms, agricultural pests, internal self fetilization, C. elegans = model organisms
segmented worms, earthworms and leaches
Cartilaginous fish
sharks, rays and skates, swimmers
silicon, calcium carbonate, support body
stinging cells, associated with cnidarians
Ray finned fish/bony finned fish
swim bladder allows fish to float, swim, external fertilization, jaws evolved from gills, first animals to have bones as internal skeleton, ancestor to tetrapods
The ability to maintain an internal body temperature independent of environmental conditions.
The condition in which an animal’s body temperature is dependent on environmental conditions.
The process of molting or shedding an exoskeleton to facilitate growth.
Suppose the seawater in a marine habitat were filtered to remove all of the plankton and other small particles (though not larger swimming organisms). Which mollusks would probably be negatively affected the soonest?
The water would become murkier.
these animals most molt to grow, curticle/exoskeleton that limits growth
Suppose you traveled back in time and located the first animals to have developed feathers. You found that these animals were ground-dwelling ectotherms, able to run quickly, but unable to fly or even glide. You also noticed that males of the species had no feathers at all, while females had bright blue feathers covering their tails. Which hypothesis of feather evolution would these data most support?
they would be most successful near the Earth's equator
In what respect do humans differ from all other anthropoids?
Suppose you were a researched choosing a model organism with which to study animal genetics. Which of the following characteristics would you not look for in your model organism?
What would you look for to distinguish a gastropod from a chiton?
form sheaths around roots and penetrate between root cells
Nonvascular plant dominant stage
gametophyte is dominant stage
Two groups of angiosperms
monocots and dicorts
Diversity of flowers
reflect diversity of pollinators
Protists can fix
Protist life cycle
dominated by diploid cells
phylogentic species concept
groups that are descended froma common ancestor
Over time, genetic drift can lead to loss of ….
Inbreeding depression:
loss of fitness because homozygosity increases (loss of alleles)
Why do allele frequences change?
Mutation, ultimate source of variation; gene flow, nonrandom mating, genetic drift=random factors
Baby birth weight is an example of _______________ selection
stabilizing selection
Homology is evidence of
common ancestry
Evolotion is not
Law of Succession
species in the same region are succeeded by similar species
In comparing a muscle and skin cell, you're likely to find the greatest differences in each cell's content of:
regulatory transcription factors
Histones must be removed from DNA to allow
Glucose is the ___________ of the digestion of lactose
Genes are always translated
Transcriptional control
mRNA is not made
Post-translational control
protein is not activated
Translational control
protein not made
How do proteins bind to DNA?
they use DNA symmetry, 2-fold rotation symmetry/dyand symmetry, proteins recognize that symmetry to fit
RNA polymerase binds to specifc regions of DNA
During transcription in bacteria… RNA polymerase matches
Template Strand with mRNA
How are genes copied
1) enzyme (helicase) breaks hydrogen bonds 2) bindg proteins keeps DNA from re-bonding 3) DNA unzips 4) topoisomerase, keeps DNA from kinking
In tigers, a recessive allele causes a white tiger. If 2 phenotypically normal tigers that are heterozygous at this recessive gene are mated, what percentage of their offspring are expected to be white?
Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by a recessive autosomal allele. If a woman and her husband are both carriers, what is the probability that their first child will be a phenotypically normal child?
Law of segregation
meiosis 1 and 2
one allele controls multiple traits, marfan syndrome
spiny skins, sea stars, radial symmetry,
Law of independent assortment
way the chromosomes line up in meiosis
Incomplete Dominance
In rabbits, the homozygous CC is normal, Cc results in deformed legs, and cc results in very short legs. The genotype BB produces black fur, Bb brown fur, and bb white fur. If a cross is made between brown rabbits with deformed legs and white rabbits with deformed legs, what percentage of the offspring would be expected to have deformed legs and white fur?
In a sample of double-stranded DNA from a particular organism, if 15% of the nitrogenous base is thymine, what percentage should be cytosine?
Based on the above pedigree, what is the probability that Olga was a carrier for hemophilia (shaded = hemophilia)? Remember that hemophilia is a sex-linked, recessive trait.
Regarding an allelic pair for flower color in snapdragons, heterozygotes have pink flowers, whereas the two homozygotes have red flowers or white flowers. When plants with red flowers are crossed with plants with white flowers, what proportion of the offspring is expected to have pink flowers?
central dogma
1 = replication; 2 = transcription; 3 = translation
Mendel had two pure lines of peas, one with wrinkled seeds, one with smooth seeds. He crossed these lines and found all smooth seeds in the F1 generation. Then, he crossed the F1 with each other. What did he find?
3:1 Smooth versus wrinkled seeds
DNA replicates in:
5’ to 3’
Select three posttranscriptional modifications often seen in the maturation of mRNA in eukaryotes.
5′-capping; 3′-poly(A) tail addition; splicing
bacterial colonies remain their normal white color. What is X-Gal likely to be?"
a compound chemically similar to lactose
When an egg rolls out of a nest, a female goose performs a specific neck motion to bring the egg back into the nest, even if the egg is completely removed during the retrieval process. This behavior is:
A fixed action pattern
An earthquake decimates a ground-squirrel population. The surviving population happens to have broader stripes on average than the initial population. If broadness of stripes is genetically determined, what effect has the ground-squirrel population has experienced during the earthquake?
a genetic bottleneck
In biology, a coevolutionary arms race occurs when:
A pair of species influence each others’ evolution
If you were trying to identify an unknown adult organism, which morphological feature(s) would guarantee that your organism was an echinoderm rather than a chordate?
a radially symmetrical body plan
Which of the following mutations would have the greatest negative impact on the protein product of a gene?
a single base insertion near the start of the coding region of the gene
Recently, fossil dinosaurs have been found with feathers, indicating that they are _____ reptiles and birds.
A transitional form between
Cyanobacteria dominate many marine and freshwater environments. They became very numerous 2.7 billion years ago. Which of their features was responsible for such success?
ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis
The dam in the question above would be a/an:
abiotic factor
What do Bacteria have in common with Archaea but not with Eukarya?
absence of nucleus
A black guinea pig crossed with an albino guinea pig produced 12 black offspring. When the albino was crossed with a second black animal, 6 blacks and 6 albinos were obtained. What is the best explanation for this genetic situation?
Albino is recessive; black is dominant.
In what species would you expect to see swimming gametes in plants?
A man who carries an X-linked allele (gene) will pass it on to
all of his daughters
Which of these is NOT part of Mendel’s model?
Alleles blend to form the offspring’s phenotype.
Mendel’s law of independent assortment states:
alleles separate into gametes in unique combinations of traits.
Not long ago, it was believed that a count of the number of genes in an organism would provide a count of the number of gene products. This is now known to be incorrect, largely due to the discovery of widespread:
alternative splicing
Based on latitude, what should have the most humid climate?
An equatorial forest
To make a vaccine against the polio virus, researchers treated the polio virus with formaldehyde and used this preparation to inject people. This is an example of:
an inactivated virus vaccine
Which of the following statements explains why animals are less likely than plants to speciate by polyploidy?
Animals rarely self-fertilize, so diploid gametes are much less likely to fuse.
Researchers interested in extraterrestrial life often study ____ because these organisms occur in extreme environments, and resemble early organisms.
Which are evolutionarily more closely related?
Archaea and Eukarya
Imagine you’ve isolated, directly from the human genome, the complete gene that encodes human growth hormone. After running through all the steps for cloning and expression described in Section 19.1 of this chapter, you find no human growth hormone is expressed. Why do you think this procedure failed?
Bacteria cannot carry out splicing.
Wetlands with the slowest water flow and the most acidic water are typically
Assume that blue eyes are recessive to brown eyes. What would be easier (take less time) to eliminate from a population?
Brown eyes
Male frogs give calls that attract female frogs to approach and mate. Researchers examined mating calls of pairs of closely related tree frogs in South America. If reinforcement of prezygotic isolation is occurring, what would you expect if you compare the calls of the two species in zones of sympatry and allopatry?
Calls would be more different in areas of sympatry.
Histone bound DNA ___ be cut by DNases (DNA cutting enzymes).
Which of these is considered to be an ecosystem service?
Carbon cycling
Why are changes in the global carbon cycle important?
Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, and increasing atmospheric concentrations could alter Earth’s climate.
Sugars made by one plant during photosynthesis can travel through a mycorrhizal fungus and be incorporated into the tissues of another plant
carbon-14 is found in the Douglas fir seedling's tissues and carbon-13 in the birch
While examining a rock surface, you have discovered an interesting new organism. Which of the following criteria will allow you to classify the organism as belonging to Bacteria but not Archaea or Eukarya?
Cell walls are made primarily of peptidoglycan.
When the alarm clock goes off, Strawberry, my dog, runs to the back door because I usually let him out before I do anything else in the morning. Strawberry’s response to the alarm clock is:
classical conditioning
What is the main difference between climate and weather?
climate typically describes longer-term conditions
How do cnidarians differ from poriferans?
cnidarians are radially symmetrical, while poriferas are asymmetrical. AND cnidarians may be active predators, while poriferans are only suspension feeders
The recognition and manipulation of facts about the world is termed
One way to detect alternative splicing of a given gene is to:
compare the sequence of mature mRNAs made from this gene
Which of the following characteristics is true of all protists?
contains a nucleus
If the primary RNA transcript is not altered (i.e., no poly A tail or 5’ cap), this would be an example of:
Control via RNA processing
The projections for Earth’s human population by 2050 made in 1992 are much higher than those recently made in 2002. What is the main difference recent history has made in this significant projection alteration?
Deaths from AIDS have significantly increased since 1992.
In ecological food webs, fungi tend to be:
Several generations of inbreeding tend to ____ genetic variation.
If we radiolabel amino acids that are attached to tRNA, we would expect the level radioactivity on the tRNA to _____, as the level of radioactivity in proteins would ______.
Decrease; increase
As the number of species in a plot ____, the productivity of that plot:
decreases; decreases
Which of the following sequences is in the correct order for one cycle of PCR?
Denature DNA; anneal primers; extend primers.
Gill pouches in chick, human, and house-cat embryos are an example of:
developmental homology
Two populations of birds with somewhat different coloration live on opposite sides of a peninsula. The habitat beween the populations is not suitable for these birds. When birds from the two populations are brought together, they produce young whose appearance is intermediate between the two parents. These offspring will breed with each other or with birds from either parent population, and all offspring of these pairings appear intermediate to various degrees. The two populations and the hybrids are:
different species, under the morphospecies concept
For most of its lifecycle, a cnidarian is:
If taller males are more likely to find mates and have offspring, this would be a form of:
directional selection.
A biologist doing a long-term study on a wild spider population observes increased variation in silk thickness. She hypothesizes that the population is experiencing:
disruptive selection
What type of selection tends to result in speciation?
Disruptive selection
Which situation below would result in no transformation of a smooth strain to a rough
DNA eliminated, Proteins and RNA present
Radiometric dating is a technique used to determine the age of rocks. Geologists have used this technique to determine that:
Earth is about 4.6 billion years old, and life appeared on Earth about 3.8 billion years ago
Referring to Simard et al. (1997), what is the result that would most strongly refute Simard and colleagues hypothesis?
either carbon-13 or carbon-14 is found in the cedar seelding's tissues
What is the primary limiting factor that determines why no female animal can produce a very large number of very large eggs?
energy stores
The primary difference between an enhancer and a promoter-proximal element is that:
Enhancers are at considerable distances from the promoter; promoterproximal elements are close to the promoter
Considering the global water cycle, where does one find the largest amount of water changing phases?
evaporation and precipitation over the oceans
An important fossil fuel is coal, much of which was formed when:
Extensive forests of seedless vascular plants were buried and compressed.
She noted that there were not only some long strands but also numerous short segments of DNA a few hundred nucleotides long. What probably went wrong with the in vitro replication system she created?
Failure of DNA ligase occurred
Females that lay ____ eggs tend to have ____ survivorship.
Few; high
What types of data suggest that Easter Island once had high biodiversity and productivity?
fossil pollen and animal bones
The Dunkers are a religious group that moved from Germany to Pennsylvania in the mid-1700s. They do not marry with members outside their own immediate community. Today, the Dunkers are genetically unique and differ in gene frequencies, at many loci, from all other populations including their original homeland. Which of the following likely explains the genetic uniqueness of this population?
founder effect and genetic drift
In a terrestrial habitat that has undergone several consecutive years of drought, which animal population would you expect to be most negatively affected?
In animals, why are fungal infections such as athlete's foot so much harder to cure than bacterial infections?
fungi and animals are more closely related than bacteria and animals.
Lichen represent a relationship between two organisms. _____ allow(s) anchoring to the substrate; _____ provide(s) energy via photosynthesis
fungi; algae
Which of the following does not tend to promote speciation?
gene flow
In the case of lions, workers are seeking to preserve ______ by artificial insemination between lion prides
Genetic diversity
Which of the following statements regarding temperate grasslands is false?
Grassland soils are not very fertile.
In an overpopulated area of deer, which of the following is a density-dependent factor that could help reduce the number of deer?
higher predation
Which of the following properties do you predict to be most critical to histone
Histones are positively charged
Which of these things happen first?
Histones become negatively charged
The HOM genes of insects and the Hox genes of vertebrates are . . .
homologous because they are similar in organization, function and composition
Which step in Southern blotting allows an investigator to identify a particular DNA fragment that is present within a complex mixture of fragments?
hybridization with a labeled probe
Which would be the best way to obtain evidence of a bird’s cognitive abilities?
In captivity, have them attempt to solve novel problems.
DNA replicates:
In the 3’ direction
If an HIV molecule lacks integrase it will be unable to:
incorporate its DNA into the host genome.
Animal and plant diversity tends to __________ as latitude decreases.
Removal of lynx from an environment caused a _____ in hare populations, indicating that the lynx was:
increase; keystone species
The littoral zone of a lake is most similar to which of the following environments?
intertidal zone
The -10 box has all the following characteristics except:
It is both transcribed and translated.
Researchers have found fossils of Eocene horse species in Colorado. Deeper deposits contain smaller species, and more recent deposits contain larger species. How does this observation support the theory of evolution?
It provides evidence that species change over time.
Why is “reinforcement” an appropriate name for the concept that natural selection should favor divergence and genetic isolation if populations experience postzygotic isolation?
It reinforces selection for divergence that began when the species were geographically isolated
You observe scrub jays hiding food and notice that one particular individual only pretends to hide food. Your experiments associate the presence of other siblings with the frequency of pretending to cache food. A colleague shows you animals of the same species that do not perform this pretend caching. How does this affect your conclusions about this behavior?
It suggests that this behavior might be learned.
What would be the most direct effect of removing or damaging an insect's antennae?
It would have trouble smelling
Full induction of the lac operon occurs when:
lactose levels are high and glucose levels are low
There are mutants on the lactose plate that are white until you break open the cell walls and spray the colonies with ONPG. What sort of mutants did you grow?
In deep water, which of the following abiotic factors would most limit productivity?
light availability
What conditions fully induce the lac operon?
Low glucose; high lactose
In doing gene therapy, researchers frequently use attenuated viruses to carry the normal gene into cells and replace the defective gene. Which type of virus is suited to this application?
lysogenic viruses
While traveling in the Alps, you come across a butterfly that you cannot identify. You quickly find out that it is a new species. Which of the following is not a step in understanding the biodiversity of this new species?
measuring general physiology of the species
The sexually reproducing stage of a cnidarian (jellyfish) is a:
Bacteria and Archaea are very diverse and abundant groups. What allows them to occupy different habitats?
Metabolic diversity
If a protist has just generated a spore, what process has it just experienced?
DNA is the information-coding component of cells. Of the following structures, which one is coded for by the longest sequence of DNA?
mRNA having 75 codons
The lysate of mutant A develops yellow color; the lysate of mutant B does not. What can you make of this?
Mutant A has a mutation in the lacY gene; mutant B has a mutation in the lacZ gene.
Bees visit flowers to harvest nectar and pollen. What is the relationship between the bees and the flowers?
Which of the following is not a type of consumption?
Before karyogamy, what is the ploidy number of the fungal mycelium that has undergon plasomgamy
Given the structure of DNA, what component of that structure is most directly associated with encoding genetic information?
nitrogenous bases and their sequence
Does treating a viral infection with antibiotics affect the course of the infection?
No; antibiotics do not kill viruses, because viruses use host proteins to replicate and antibiotics affect bacterial proteins.
A man and woman are both of normal pigmentation, but both have one parent who is albino (without melanin pigmentation). Albinism is an autosomal (not sex-linked) recessive trait. What is the probability that their first child will have albinism?
one fourth
Which of the following statements regarding extinction is false?
Only certain species are immune from extinction.
What were the results of the experiment given above?
Only some males were white eyed.
A farmer uses triazine herbicide to control pigweed in his field. For the first few years, the triazine works well and almost all the pigweed dies; but after several years, the farmer sees more and more pigweed. Which of these explanations best describes this observation?
Only triazine-resistant weeds survived and reproduced, so each year more pigweed was triazine-resistant.
Which is the correct grouping hierarchy for studying ecology of organisms?
Gram positive bacteria lack a(n) _____ and stain _____.
Outer membrane; purple
How old is the Earth, according to the fossil record?
over 4 billion years old
Which of these is NOT a community?
People at UND
Which of these is NOT a population?
People of European descent in the U.S.
Encouraging the growth (via nutrient fertilization) of photosynthetic protists in marine environments may help reduce global warming. Why?
Photosynthetic protists fix atmospheric carbon dioxide, decreasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere.
Red algae, which are photosynthetic, are most closely related to:
Which of the following protists causes the human disease malaria?
Microspores in Gymnosperms are the equivalent of:
pollen in angiosperms
The vast number and variety of flowers is probably related to various kinds of:
A scientist is studying the effect that building a dam would have on trout in the Colorado River. She is a/an:
population ecologist.
The lac operon is an example of _____ control, because if there is too much ____ the repressor changes shape so that it does not bind to the operator.
Post-translational: Lactose
In red-winged blackbirds, which of the following stimuli elicited the greatest territorial defense response?
presenting both the model and playing the recording
Which of the following do not consume other living organisms?
primary producers
In terms of a lichen, which is a symbiotic organism containing algae and fungi, the algae is a:
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Producers get energy from decomposers.
Lactose only treatment
produces the most beta galactose
When considering the general action of RNA polymerases in eukaryotes, all of the following macromolecules are transcribed directly from DNA except:
In Hardy Weinberg Terms, what variable represents the frequency of the recessive allele in the population?
Pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy is a human disorder that causes gradual deterioration of the muscles. Only boys are affected, and they are always born to phenotypically normal parents. Due to the severity of the disease, the boys die in their teens. Is this disorder likely to be caused by a dominant or recessive allele? Is its inheritance sex-linked or autosomal?
recessive, sex-linked
Referring to the figure above, what antivenom would you administer to a person bitten by a King brown snake?
red-bellied black snake
Given the pathway above, what therapy would you consider most likely to ameliorate (reduce) the symptoms associated with PKU if applied sufficiently early?
Reduce dietary intake of phenylalanine.
Extracellular glucose inhibits transcription of the lac operon by:
reducing the levels of intracellular cAMP
In testing his hypothesis that “territorial defense in European robins is a fixed action pattern that is released by the sight of orange feathers,” Lack found that robins defended their territory by attacking anything that was of similar size and had an orange patch. How would you show that it was indeed color that initiated the defense responses?
Repeat the experiment removing the orange patch.
A measure of how much a community is affected by a disturbance is termed
Antibiotic resistance occurs when:
resistant bacteria are the only survivors that reproduce.
DNA makes _____ that then makes _____.
RNA; protein
After that, you saw an animal that was predatory with radial symmetry in the same ocean. You saw a/an:
sea star
DNA replicates:
Male turkeys have a snood, which is a flap of skin that hangs across their beak. Snood length is negatively correlated with parasite load (e.g., males with longer snoods have fewer parasites), and females prefer to mate with long-snooded males. This is an example of:
sexual selection via female choice
To begin transcription, the _____ binds to the –10 box and the –35 box, which are gene regions called:
sigma factor; promoters
In bacteria, transcription and translation occur ____, where in eukaryotes, these process occur ______.
Simultaneously; separately
Which of these is NOT evidence for the endosymbiosis theory?
Some protists do not have chloroplasts
Given there are three “termination codons” that do not code for a given amino acid, you might expect there would be 61 tRNAs. But the actual number is smaller (about 40), because:
Some tRNAs have anticodons that can recognize two or more different codons.
Small ribonuclear proteins called snRNP’s, form _____ to remove ______ from the primary RNA transcript.
Spliceosomes, introns
If you were diving in the ocean and found a sessile animal with spicules, you would be observing a:
Trees represent the:
sporophyte stage.
Introns are known to contain stop codons (UAA, UGA, or UAG) yet not interrupt the
Stop codons within an intron are not involved in translation, because the introns are removed before translation
Which of the following movements are matched correctly with the appendage that facilitates that movement in protists?
Swimming; flagella
When we say that the genetic code is redundant, we mean:
that several codons code for the same amino acid.
Which evolutionary innovation was most significant in helping tetrapods move to dry terrestrial environments?
the amniotic egg
What is the main factor dictating Earth’s temperature distribution?
the amount of sunlight per unit area
A researcher is examining fruit flies. She finds that some populations of fruit flies, though they look alike, are unable to produce offspring when they are mated in the lab. She concludes that these populations are different species. What species concept is she using?
the biological species concept
Double-stranded nucleic acids are said to be antiparallel. What structural configuration is antiparallel?
The C-5’ to C-3’ ribose orientations run in opposite directions on the complementary strands.
Which components of the lac operon might you expect to see utilized in the regulation of other genes?
the CAP binding site
A fish swimming into an estuary from a river would have what great physiological challenge?
The change in water solute content would challenge the osmotic balance of the fish.
Crick and co-workers found that when three base additions or three base deletions occurred in a single gene, the wild-type phenotype was sometimes restored
The code is triplet
Fundamentally, what makes one cell different from another in a multicellular eukaryote?
The different cells contain different sets of regulatory proteins.
What feature of the repressor protein accounts for the dyad symmetry of each operator of the lac operon?
The DNA binding domains of the repressor function as dimers.
The above pedigree displays the prevalence of hemophilia in a royal family. What was the genetic status of the parents of Irene, Fred, and Alix?
The father was normal, the mother a carrier.
Which of these happens first in DNA replication?
The helicase unwinds the DNA.
Considering the current scientific literature on global warming, which statement best summarizes the most recent findings?
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that current evidence suggests that most of the warming over the past 50 years is attributable to human activities.
The land developer offers 20 hectares in evenly distributed but isolated 1-hectare portions. The ecologists keep arguing for one 20 hectare area to remain intact. What’s the difference?
The isolated plots are more vulnerable to edge effects.
HIV goes through a dormant stage, where the viruses do not replicate themselves using cell machinery. What type of reproduction does this correspond to?
The lysogenic cycle
Which of these statements does NOT fit Mendel’s model?
The male parent contributes the traits to the offspring.
For a terrestrial anthropod with an exoskeleton, which of the following is not is not a disadvantage of molting?
the organism is unable to change its body shape; it can only grow larger
Suppose you came across a novel organism you suspected belonged to one of the following animal phyla: {profera, Cnidera, Ctenophora, or Acoelomorpha. Which of the following charactgeristics would not be helpful in placing the organism into the correct phylum?
the organism's habitat
Which strain(s) would you expect to kill mice when injected into their blood stream, if R is virulent and S is benign?
The R strain and R strain mixed with heat killed S strain
Two frog populations (same species) living in two neighboring lakes sing slightly different courtship songs. Predict what likely happens to the songs of the two frog Females prefer loud frogs to quieter frogs, but do not distinguish between the two slightly different songs. Assume that courtship song differences have a genetic basis.
The songs become more similar to each other.
If Earth were to reorient such that the North Pole always received direct sunlight (always faced the Sun), how would that change Earth’s climate?
The South Pole would get colder.
Which of the following is a correct element of alternation of generations?
The sporophyte is diploid and produces spores.
Which of the following statements applies to the lysogenic cycle?
The viral genome integrates into the host cell’s genome
Suppose all of the suspension feeders were removed from a lake. What would you expect to happen after some time?
The water would become murkier.
Why are terrestrial fungal mycelium nearly always found within their food sources (underground, within wood, inside the bodies of dead organisms)?
Their high surface area, which is so efficient for absorptive feeding, makes them prone to drying out.
When examining the genetic code, it is apparent that:
There can be more than one codon for a particular amino acid.
Phytoplankton is comprised of photosynthetic protists and bacteria. For the most part, humans do not consume phytoplankton. Why, then, are they important to humans?
They are food for many marine organisms that humans eat.
In the video, how did plants respond to increased carbon dioxide?
They grew faster and produced more leaves.
The collar flagellates and sponges are similar because:
they have similar digestive cells
What is not true of all arthropods?
They metamorphose during development
All of the following are true about choanoflagellates except
they repoduce sexually
If birds were ectothermic, where would they probably be most successful?
they would be most successful near the Earth's equator
An example of an inducible defense would be:
Thicker shells in the presence of a predator
Why is a probe often radioactive?
To allow researchers to locate a gene
A researcher thinks that they have found the bacterium that causes MRSA. He took a skin sample from a sick animal, and exposed a healthy animal to the sample. The healthy animal began to develop symptoms similar to the sick animal. What step did the researcher forget?
To isolate and grow the pathogen in a culture
Why is gel electrophoresis used in many procedures?
To separate pieces by size
Which of these statements is FALSE?
Tool use is subject to natural selection.
Which of these is TRUE?
Transcription and translation can occur at the same time in prokaryotes.
In the context of genetic engineering, plasmids are used as vectors. This means that plasmids allow for:
transfer of foreign genes into a cell
Which of these processes does not involve DNA directly?
Which of these processes involves the expression of genes in a phenotype?
Which ecosystem is most productive on Earth?
Tropical wet forest
If we are wondering why a female lion allows her cubs to be killed when new males take over a pride, we are examining:
Ultimate causes
PCR is similar to transcription in genes because both:
use primers to begin the reaction.
Which of these innovations allowed the growth of large land plants?
Vascular tissue
Many crustaceans (e.g., lobsters, shrimp, and crayfish) use their tails to swim, but crabs have reduced tails that curl under their shells and are not used in swimming. This is an example of:
vestigial trait
What is the main reason gene therapy is not employed more often?
Viruses may insert genes randomly, causing cancer
Which of these statements is TRUE?
Viruses parasitize all living things
Emerging viruses are:
viruses that have recently switched from one host to a new host
What does Hamilton’s rule specify?
when alleles that favor self-sacrificing acts increase in frequency via kin selection
When do density dependent factors begin to limit populations?
When populations reach the carrying capacity