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152 Cards in this Set

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How are ES and NS similiar?
1. Neurotransmitters are Hs and vice versa.
2. Parts of brain are part of ES. (pineal, pituitary)
3. Some EGlands modified brain tissue.
4. both produce biologically active chemicals.
5. Hs affect NS & vice versa.
What are some differencs between ES & NS?
1. ES produces slower effects- minutes, hours, days
2. ES effects take longer to wear off
3. ES has wide-spread effect- Hs affect many different parts, whereas NS is specific to cell or gland.
Name 6 general characteristics of hormones.
1. A chemical is hormone if secreted and transported in blood
2. Most all organs produce hormones
3. Are secreted in response to specific stimuli: Neural, humoral & hormonal
4. Many EGs secrete more than one H
5. Each H only activates target cells or tissues. Cell requires receptor.
6. Hs affect cell activation by metabolic change, rate of cell division, and secretion.
Hs are secreted in response to specific stimuli. Name the three and describe.
1. neural- gland directly connected to nerve cell (e.g. adrenal), which causes secretion
2. humoral (blood, body fluid)- chem. in blood stimulates gland (e.g. pancreas)
3. hormonal- tropic Hs trigger other EG to secrete Hs.
In what 3 ways do Hs affect cells?
1. Metabolism change- cells make chemicals, proteins, enzymes, etc.
2. Cell division rate- speed up or slow down
3. secretion- has cell start or stop secretion of chemicals
Everything ES affects is by one of these 3 ways.
Name 8 major EGs.
1. pituitary (anterior, posterior)
2. pineal
3. thymus
4. thyroid
5. parathyroid
6. pancreas
7. adrenal (adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla)
8. reproductives- ovaries & testes
Which EG is "master gland?" What 6 hormones does it produce? group of 4 (FLAT) and then 2 out of group?
Anterior pituitary G.
4 tropics (TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH)
2 non-tropics- GH PRL
Name and describe what the 4 tropic hormones do.
1. TSH (thyroid stimulating H)- eponymous
2. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic H)- switches on adrenal cortex
3. FSH (follicle-stimulating H)- stims ovary follicles to begin development of H & eggs, and devel. of sperm cells &tissues around testes.
4. LH (leutinizing H)- further stims ovaries & formation of corpus luteum
What are GH & PRL? What do they do?
Are they tropic or non-tropic?
GH- growth hormone. affects most cells in body. skeleton growth regulation.
PRL- (prolactin) (neural)- produced during pregnancy. stims milk glands & secretion. In males, don't know why.
Does each H usually do one thing?
No. each H can do 100s or 1000s of things. Knowlege weak on the subject.
How is posterior pituitary related to anterior? what are the 2 hormones it makes?
No functional relation.

ADH (anti-diuretic H)-conserves water. controls kidney function (water retention)
Oxytocin- triggers uterine muscles to contract. stims milk ejection from mam. glands (hours to days to start).
Plays role in recognition & trust
Describe pineal gland.
1. Located top of 3rd ventricle
function somewhat unclear
2. Regulates cyclic behavior- day/night, daily, monthly, yearly
seasonal activities- migration, hibernation, estrus
3. In humans- menstrual cycle, puberty, SAD (maybe), ovarian cycles, PMS (maybe)
4. Produces melatonin
Describe thymus gland.
1. Large gland in neck area
2. Temporary gland- degenerate into adulthood.
3. Produces thymosin
4. Sets up immune system, then atrophies. Gone by 20s.
A. Describe thyroid gland. B. What element is necessary for T3 &T4 production? What does lack of this element cause?
A. 1. In neck above thymus. Butterfly-shaped.
2. Produces two types hormones- thyroid H & calcitonin
B. Iodine. Goiter (TG enlargement)
Name and describe two types of thyroid gland Hs.
1. Thyroid H- (T3, T4). TSH stims thyroid gland to produce these Hs. They increase cell metabolism. (most all cells in body)
2. Calcitonin- stimulates osteoblasts for bone production. Reduces blood Ca++
What are common malfunctions of thyroid gland when TH is out of balance?
Too much- Grave's Disease (speeds up metabolism- jitters)
Too little- (myxedema)- slowed metabolism, gain weight, slowed thought, movement & concentration
What is cretinism?
Childhood deficiency of TH. Low metabolism. Retards growth, sex development, causes mental retardation
Describe parathyroid gland.
1. On and around thyroid.
2. Produces PTH (parathyroid gland H)
3. PTH dissolves bone tissue, increasing blood Ca++
How is blood Ca++ controlled?
Body tweaks PTH & calcatonin levels. (these are antagonists)
What are some of the important roles of Ca++?
Neuron firing,
2. muscle contraction
3. clotting
4. heartbeat
5. enzyme reaction
6. glandular secretion
Describe pancreas.
1. Digestive gland
2. Contains Islets of Langerhans- peppered in pancreas @ 1 -2%
What is function of Islets of Langerhans?
1. Produce insulin & glucagon.
2. insulin- lowers BSL, causes cells to absorb sugar
3. glucagon- raises BSL, causes liver to break down glycogen
Describe adrenal gland.
Two glands- adrenal cortex & adrenal medulla
A. Describe adrenal cortex.
B. What three groups of Hs are made?
A. 1. Outer layer of AGland. 2. 80 - 90% of AG 3. Makes up to 50 different Hs.
B. Steroid Hs: Mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, sex Hs
Describe mineralocorticoids. Name one specific H in this group.
1. Do 100s of things.
2. aldosterone- main MC
3. affect salt/water balance, mineral in body fluids
4. affect kidney function
Describe glucocortocoids.
1. cortisol a main one
2. help control blood glucose levels
3. help inhibit inflammation
Describe sex hormones.
1. estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
2. mostly from ovaries/testes
3. but adrenal cortex also makes these
What is function of testosterone?
Important to protein bulding
Describe adrenal medulla. Two Hs.
1. Interior of AG.
2. Fight or flight component
3. Engaged by sympathetic system to release epinephrine & norepinephrine.
4. AM keeps response going
Name & describe five organs that function as EGs. (specific hormone in brackets)
1. kidneys (erythropoietin)- main control over RBC production
2. liver (erythropoietin)- also controls RBCs. IGF- helps insulin w/ blood sugar control
3. heart (ANP)- helps control blood pressure & volume
4. placenta (CGH)- helps maintain ovary function. CGH detected in preg. test, as only found during preg.
5. stomach & duodenum- 12+ Hs produced help control digestion.
Briefly describe cardiovascular system (CS).
1. Main connection between internal & external world. Things into body go into CS & are delivered to cells. Things leaving are taken into CS and delivered to lungs, kidneys, etc.
What are two major transport systems of CS? Their relationship?
1. cardiovascular
2. Lymphatic
Connected to each other directly. Both function for transport, homeostasis & protection.
Describe CS. What is order of blood flow?
1. Closed system- pipes & pumps
2.heart>arteries>arterioles>capillaries>venules>veins>heart
Define & describe capillary.
Functional unit of CS.
Exchange point- nutrients, O2 leave blood for tissue. Waste, CO2, etc. into blood to exit body.
Define & describe lymphatic system.
1. Open system
2. Collects fluids from tissue spaces>lymphatic capillaries>lymphatic ducts> blood
What are 3 function categories of CS & LS? Describe.
1. Transport- Food & O2 to tissues. Wastes and CO2 to lungs, kidneys. Hs to target cells
2. homeostasis- Control fluids & electrolytes, acid/base balance and temp. homeostasis regulation
3. Protection- clotting, inflammation control, body defense (cells, blood, lymph)
Where is heart located?
What is the heart sac called?
Mediastinum.
Pericardium.
What are the three layers of the heart?
1. Epicardium- outermost layer. serous membrane (same as visceral pericardium)
2. myocardium- muscle tissue (cardiac). Makes up most of heart wall.
3. endocardium- thin layer , lines entire interior of heart. endothelial tissue (squamous epithelium)
1. What are the 4 main chambers of the heart? 2. What is the exterior of the atria? Which ventricle is larger?
1. 2 atria, 2 ventricles
2. The auricles.
3. Left ventricle
What are the 4 major blood vessels?
2 arteries- pulmonary & aortic- they attach to ventricles & carry heart away.
2 veins- pulmonary & vena cava- attach to atria & take blood back to heart
A. How many valves in heart? B. How many main valves?
C. Describe main valves.
A. 4
B. 2
C. 1. atrioventricular (AV)- bicuspid (mitral) & tricuspid. 2. between atria and ventricles. 3. held in place by cordae tendinae
4. held in place by papillary muscles
5. valve is sheet of tissue
6. bicuspid on left side
Describe & name secondary valves of heart.
Semilunar valves- between ventricles & arteries
pulmonary semilunar valve- @ beginning of pulmonary trunk

aortic semilunar valve- valves keep blood from backing into ventricles as they refill
Describe structure of blood vessel.
1. tunica externa- FCT, surrounds blood vessel
2. tunica media- smooth muscle tissue
3. tunica interna- endothelium (single layer)
Which layer are capillaries made of?
tunica interna
What are the two circuits of blood flow? Describe.
1. Pulmonary: right ventricle> pulmonary artery> lung> pulmonary vein> left atrium
2. Systemic: left ventricle> aorta> branches to rest of body> vena cava> right atrium
What is the main artery?
What are the 3 main branches of aorta?
Aorta.
1. brachiocephalic A- splits into r. subclavian A (to arms) & r. carotid A (to head)
2. Left carotid A
3. Left subclavian A (to arms)
What is the first artery after aorta passes through diaphragm? What organs receive its blood?
Ciliac trunk- supplies digestive system
What are three arteries that supply digestive system?
1. ciliac trunk
2. superior mesentery
3. inferior mesentery
Which artery supplies kidneys?
Renal arteries
Aorta splits in to which two arteries? Those split again into...?
common iliac As
external iliac A & internal iliac A
Describe superior venae cavae.
1. Superior- brings blood back from head & arms.
2. Splits into 2 brachiocephalic veins- these collect from jugular & subclavian Vs.
Describe branching veins of inferior venae cavae.
VC passes through diaphragm
there are 3 branching veins- hepatic (liver), renal (kidneys), and 2 common iliac veins (split off vena cava)
What is the physical relation between As & Vs?
Generally run next to each other.
e.g., subclavian V(drains arm) runs along subclavian A (supplies arm)
What three organs have their own circulation patterns?
1. Heart- coronary circulation
2. Brain- Circle of WIllis
3. Liver- hepatic portal system
Describe coronary circulation. (arteries & veins)
Vessels supply heart.
1. coronary arteries- 1st branches of aorta.
2. Freshest blood
3. wrap around heart between atria & ventricles
4. down indention in front & back of heart
5. branches, when blocked, can cause heart attack.
coronary veins- bring blood back to drain in right atrium
Describe Circle of Willis.
1. Brain protective mechanism
2. circular, around optic chiasma & pituitary gland
3. C of W connects R&L internal carotid A. If one blocked, blood keeps flowing
Describe hepatic portal system.
1. Series of veins draining digestive track to liver
2. Hepatic portal vein is (unusually) a vein going to another organ.
3. brings blood to liver from digestive track for nutrient storage
Which vein carries blood to inferior vena cava from liver?
hepatic vein
Describe cardiac tissue and its differences from skeletal muscles.
1. Striated, ends are blunt, not tapering. Intercalated discs between ends. All cells connected to each other as one through cytoplasm of each cell.
2. Tissue is branched (Y-shaped)
3. Need lots of O2
4. Large mitochondria
5. Don't fatigue
6. First dibs on O2-ed blood
7. Aerobic only- no anaerobic function
8. Don't do tetanus- always contract and relax
9. specialized muscles- always going from birth to death, by design
There are two different interconnections of heart tissue. Describe.
All atria fibers connected, & all ventricle fibers connected.
Makes like two separate giant muscle cells
Zap anywhere and entire muscle contracts.
What can cardiac muscles use for energy?
1. glucose
2. fatty acids
3. lactic acid
1. What is the heart-conducting system?
2. What are the 4 parts?
1. Group of fibers that act like nerve fibers to enervate cardiac muscles. Designed to control contractions of heart.
2. SA node, AV node, AV bundle & Purkinje fibers
Describe SA node.
1. Bundle of fibers @ top of R. atrium
2. "Pacemaker" of heart- auto-fire @ 70-75 bpm. brain not needed
3. When SA node fires, causes atrium to contract
4. Impulse travels down to AV node, then down to PFs, causing ventricular contraction
Describe AV node.
1. Bundle of fibers
2. connected to AV bundle, which runs down ventricular septum
3. Branch out into individual fibers, (Purkinje fibers), which branch out into cardiac cells (muscle tissue)
Describe order of heart electric pulse.
SA node fires> atria contract> spreads to AV node> Purkinje Fibers> ventricles contract
What does ECG measure?
1. Current, not contraction
2. shows electricity through heart conducting system
3. QRS wave, then ventricle contracts
What does P wave show?
Elect. pulse produced by SA node (then atria contract)
What are the ECG waves?
P, Q, R, S, T
What info can ECGs provide?

Give example of ECG-spotted problem
1. how well fibers are conducting impulses
2. how well heart is beating
3. cardiologists can extract lots of info
Heart block- weak "bumps" on ECG
What happens if SA node fails?
1. AV becomes pacemaker
2. AV fires slower
3. SA node tends to burn out. then need pacemaker
Describe cardiac cycle.
1. takes about .8 sec
2. four chambers contract & relax in less than a second
3. contraction= systole
4. relaxation= diastole
What are the heart sounds? Lub? Dub?
Valve sounds
Lub is systolic
Dub is diastolic
Describe the "lub" sound.
Describe "dub."
Lub- 1st, ventricles contract and make AV valves slam shut so blood doesn't try to back into atria.
Dub- 2nd, ventricles relax- SL valves slam close to keep blood from backing into ventricles from arteries.
What are murmurs and what causes them?
Murmurs are leaky valves.
Causes: congenital, bacterial infection, developmental defect.
Can be repaired w/ surgery
1. Describe cardiac output.
2. What is stroke volume?
3. How is cardiac output measured?
4. How much blood is moved a minute?
5. How much blood in body?
1. CO is blood volume pumped per minute.
2. amount of blood per beat
3. Heart rate X stroke volume
4. 75 ml/beat X 75bpm= 5 liters
5. approx. 5 liters
1. What determines heart rate?
2. What causes heart to speed up & slow down?
1. Exertion & excitement
Slower at rest, esp. sleep
Under control of cardiac ctr. in brain stem> connected to SA node
2. Speed up= emergency signal to sympathetic fibers.
Slow down= parasympathetic system
Describe stroke volume.
What is symptom of HPB?
1. Related to BP
2. When BP up, harder to pump blood into blood vessels.
HBP can lead to enlarged heart
Where is blood pressure highest? Lowest?
Highest in arteries, lowest in vena cava.
H # of BP gives info on...?
L#BP gives info on...?
H#BP> heart, ventricle strength
L#BP> gives info on artery health (plaque & vessel contriction), info on back pressure
Describe a bit about veins.
1. thin walls, not much pumping effect
2. kind of blood reservoir
3. constrict during blood loss to raise BP
4. BP near 0
5. Have one-way valves
Describe two ways blood is helped to pump through body.
1. muscular pump- muscles contract, squeeze blood. movement needed to help move blood.
2. respiratory pump- breathing movement causes relative change in pressure either side of diaphragm.
What causes varicose veins?
Veins near surface, so less muscle to squeeze them. Veins bloat out, valves don't close.
Describe respiratory pump.
1. Breathing movement causes relative change in pressure either side of diaphragm.
2. assists larger veins, esp. vena cava
3. Chest & abdomen two separate cavities- every time you breath, it's a pump.
Define & describe capillaries.
1. Functional unit of CS.
2. Point of exchange for nutrients, O2, hormones and wastes.
3. whole point of CS is to get blood to this point
4. very small (<mm)
5. every cell next to a capillary
6. grouped together in capillary beds
7. blood travels slowest here
A. Describe thoroughfare channel.
B. And precapillary sphincters.
A. connects arterioles and venules. is a by-pass channel. capillaries branch off this channel
B. 1. contrict & dilate. 2. control blood flow into capillary bed 3. when contricted- blood by-passes 4. when relaxed- more blood to beds
1. What is vasomotor control? (handout)
2. what are cramps?
1. controlled @ brainstem level, it controls where blood gets sent.
2. not enough nutrients to muscles.
Name 4 factors related to general susceptibility to disease.
1. genetic makeup
2. age
3. hormone levels & interactions
4. nutrition & stress
Name 2 surface barriers and 3 to 6 points about each.
Are these specific or non-specific defenses?
A. intact skin- covers body surface
1. thick keratinzed skin
2. oil glands secreted protective film
3. skin acidity- acid mantel & contains bacteriocidal chemicals

B. Mucous membranes- line all systems opening to outside
1. tears-flush and kill bacteria w/ lysosomes
2. saliva- flushes bacteria from mouth. contains lysosome
3. gastric secretions- have acids/enzymes that kill/dissolve bacteria
4. mucous lining- of resp. system. traps and removes bacteria
5. urine-flushes bacteria down & out of urethra
6.mucous lining- of repro system- traps, kills pathogens
Non-specific.
Name the two types of nonspecific defenses (innate resistance).
1. Surface barriers- intact skin & mucous membranes
2. Internal cellular & chemical defenses
Name the two types of body defenses & define each
1. non-specific (innate resistance)- generalized set of physical, cellular & chemical reponses to invasion by pathogen
2. specific (immune response)- body's unique, customized response to a specific pathogen that acts systemically & has memory
Name two types of specific defenses.
1. Anti-body mediated immunity (AMI; humoral immunity)
2. Cell mediated immunity (CMI)
Describe Anti-body mediated immunity.
(AMI; humoral immunity)
1. B lymphocytes cells activated by exposure to antigen. divide rapidly into plasma and memory cells
2. plasma cells- secrete specific antibodies that trigger removal of pathogen.
Describe Cell mediated immunity (CMI)
1. T lymphocytes activated by exposure to antigen. Divide rapidly into helper-, cytotoxic-, and memory T-cells,
2. Various T-cells secrete cytokines, which direct activities of B, T, and white blood cells to remove pathogen
Blood is composed of what two components? Describe each briefly
1. plasma (liquid): mostly water. contains solutes (nutrients, O2, wastes, Hs) & plasma proteins
2. formed elements: consists of RBC's, WBC's and platelets
Where are RBC's, WBC's and platelets produced?
In stem cells in bone marrow and LS.
What are the three plasma proteins in blood and what do they do?
I. Albumin: 1) buffers 2) controls B pressure 3) transports Hs, nutrients & O2 (by attaching to proteins)
Ex: penicillin carried by albumin
II. Globulin: Anti-bodies & some transport
III. fibronogen: blood clotting; made by liver
Describe RBC's.
1. erythrocytes: not really cells
2. unusual shape- bi-concave for flexibility and surface area
3. contains hemoglobin to carry four O2 molecules
4. formed in bone marrow
5. live 4 mos. then spleen & liver remove
6. created by erythropoiesis.
7. kidneys control #s w/ erythropoietin
Describe anemia.
Anemia: lack of RBC's
Due to: bleeding, lack of hemoglobin w/in
Symptoms: pale, lethargic, short of breath.
Causes: Fe deficiency, B vit. deficiency
Describe polycythemia.
1. Too many RBCs.
2. blood gets thicker> clot risk> stroke, kidney failure, heart attack
3. genetic disease, usually
4. altitude change can cause.
5. give blood to thin out
Describe WBCs.
1. Leukocytes: real blood cell (nucleus)
2. few by % in blood- lots mostly working in tissues & LS
3. leave blood for tissue spaces
4. larger than RBCs
What are the most common type of WBC? Describe.
neutrophils- large, weird-shaped nuclei: 3- or 4-lobed. main WBCs at cuts & inflammations-destroy bacteria & damaged cells. if have infection, lots of Ns in blood. E.g., appendicitis
Which WBCs are found mainly in LS?
1. Lymphocytes
2. Important part of specific immunity
Describe other types of WBCs.
Others: present in small %s (1 or 2%)
Fight parasitic infections (eosinophil), allergies (basophil), etc.
How do WBC counts help in diagnosis? What's this called?
Differential WBC Count- counting specific %s of types of WBC can tell what is infecting body
EX: allergies, parasitic infection, appendicitis
How long do WBCs live?
Where are they made?
from hours to lifetime
from stem cells
production controlled by Hs
made in bone marrow and LS
Which of the three formed elements is made from pieces of cells?
Describe.
1. thrombocytes (platelets)
2. Made in bone marrow, from ruptured stem cells.
3. Live 7-10 days
4. more platelets than WBCs
5. defensive function
6. controlled hormonally
What is purpose of thrombocytes?
Defensive.
1. secretes chems> causes constriction of blood vessel
2. platelet plug
3. 1000s of leaks daily in body plugged
4. clotting cascade
What is clotting cascade?
1. positive feedback mechanism
2. chemical chain reaction (15-20).
3. final step turns fibrinogen into fibrin, a sticky, webby material that catches RBCs & stuff to plug hole
What is the physiology of hemophilia?
1 "bleeder's disease
2. one of cascade chems. lacking
3. last reaction doesn't occur
4. can inject missing proteins to cause clotting
Describe "self" vs. "non-self"
1. Immune system recognizes what is part of body (self), attacks what is not (non-self).
2. mainly large, organic molecules
Decribe non-self, antigens.
1. Things that don't belong
2. antigens are large molecules, esp. proteins.
3. 1000s of proteins on cell membrane- only a few cause problems to become antigens
What are to two systems of blood types?
1. ABO
2. Rh system
What is the rule for transfusions?
Recipient can't make anti-bodies against a donor's antigens
Who can receive universally? Donate?
AB+
O-
Briefly describe LS.
1. One of the two vascular systems
2. directly connected to the CS
3. helps CS do its job
4. more important for body defenses & immunity- is all WBCs
Give five functions of LS.
1. returns fluid back to blood: lots of H2O leaves capillaries
2. returns large molecules to blood:
3. absorbs fats from digestive system (lacteal capillary)
4. hemopoiesis: makes some WBCs
5. body defense & immunity
LS returns large molecules to blood. Why is this important?
1. 50% blood proteins leak out of capillaries. Their return is essential to retaining blood volume & blood proteins
Describe LS.
1. collection of vessels running throughout body.
2. lymph fluid flows through system
3. begins as lymphatic capillaries- found wherever blood capillariess are found
4. lymphatic capillaries> lymphatic vessels> lymphatic ducts> subclavian vein
Dscribe lymphatic capillaries.
1. blind-ended fingers w/ slits in end.
2. pick up excess fluids & proteins in tissues around cap. beds
3. very permeable to H2O, solutes & proteins
Describe lymphatic vessels.
1. vein-like
2. three layers- tunica externa, media, and interna
3. one-way valves; no pump mechanism
4. lots more than veins
Describe lymph nodes.
1. throughout length of lymphatic vessels
2. areas to screen lymph vessels & remove things than don't belong
3. several vessels in, 1 or 2 out.
4. is filled w/ WBCs- pull out bacteria, junk
5. filter & clean lymph before it returns to blood
6. esp. found in: neck, armpit, groin area
Where are the two lymphatic ducts found?
1. right LD: drains right side, chest and up. opens into r. subclavian vein
2. thoracic duct: drains all else. drains into left subclavian vein.
What are three organs associated w/ LS?
1. tonsils: pharyngeal, palatin, & lingual
2. spleen
3. thymus gland
Describe tonsils and function.
1. 3 types: pharyngeal, palatin, & lingual
2. help sensitize body against antigens in food or air.
3. are part of immune system exposed to outside world
4. but not essential
Describe spleen & function.
1. Giant lymph node: lots of WBCs
2. blood and lymph travel through
3. destruction of RBCs
4. cleans blood & lymph
Decribe thymus gland
thymus gland:
where immune system set up.
Part of LS: WBCs mature here.
When is a chemical considered a H?
If it is secreted & transported in the blood.
Describe Respiratory system briefly.
1. takes in O2, lets out CO2
2. speech & vocalization
3. location of sense of smell
4. aids acid/base balance
5. blood & fluid pump (breathing action)
6. airways held open by cartilage
Name major parts of Resp. System (RS).
1. nasal cavity
2. pharynx (throat)
3. larynx (voice box)(Adam's apple)
4. trachea
5. lungs
What parts constitute upper & lower resp. system?
1. Upper- nose to voicebox
2. lower- trachea on down
1. Where are lungs located?
2. What reduces lung friction during breathing?
1. Pleural cavity
2. Pleural membranes & serous fluid
1. what separates nose from mouth?
2. Nasal cavity is divided into many passageways. how does this help?
3. what are sinuses?
4. nose is lined w/ what two things, and how does this help?
1. hard & soft palate.
2. warms & moistens air.
3. sacs lined w/ mucous membranes
4. mucous membranes & cilia. helps sweep out material in the air
What are the three regions of the pharynx (throat)? What do each contain?
1. nasopharynx- uvula, pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids), auditory tubes
2. oropharynx- (part you see in mouth)- palatine & lingual tonsils
3. laryngopharynx- lowest part of throat area
Describe larynx (voicebox).
1. formed from nine major cartilages.
2. contains- thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage & epiglottis
Describe thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage & epiglottis
2. thyroid cartilage is largest- forms adam's apple
3.cricoid- below thyroid cartilage. only complete ring of cartilage around trachea.
3. epiglottis- moveable flap over glottis. keeps food from going down trachea. open while breathing. closed while swallowing
What are the two bands of muscles around larynx?
1. false vocal chords
2. true vocal chords
1. what is location of trachea?
2. How is T held open?
3. T splits into...?
4. Can you see bronchioles w/ eyes?
5. What attaches to ends of bronchioles?
1. from larynx to bronchii.
2. by c-shaped bands of cartilage.
3. two bronchii.
4. no. are microscopic
5. aveoli.
What are aveoli?
Clusters of sacs at end of bronchioles. They are the functional unit of the respiratory system.
Explain ventilation (breathing) for inhaling and exhaling
inspiration- air drawn in by diaphragm contracting. strong breaths use external intercostals
expiration- air released by relaxation of diaphragm. deep exhalation aided by internal intercostals
1. Name the the system for measuring air in lungs.
2. What are the two measurements? Describe.
1. Respiratory volumes.
2. Tidal volume- normal amount of air in & out. (500ml)
vital capacity- max. air able to inhale (3000ml)
What is technical name for a collapsed lung?
pneumothorax.
Describe anatomy of aveoli.
1. made of squamous epithelium.
2. are tiny sacs, single layer thick
What is the respiratory membrane?
Squamous epithelium of both aveoli & capillaries. O2 must cross these two membranes from lungs to blood and vice versa.
What is surface area of respiratory membrane?
700 s.f.
about area of tennis court
What type of gas exchange occurs from lungs to blood cells and vice versa?
simple diffusion
How much O2 is bound by hemoglobin?
By plasma?
98%
2%
Why is CO dangerous?
Readily attaches to hemoglobin, and stays attached until death of RBC, blocking O2 absorption
What is CO2 concentration in blood?
1. 10% dissolved in plasma
2. 20% bound to hemoglobin
3. 70% converted to bicarbonate ion
most CO2 carried around as bicarbonates
What is chemical process of creating bicarbonate ions? (don't have to know for test)
CO2+H20 -->H2CO3-->H+ +HCO3
1. When you exhale,what do you get rid of?
2. What drives breathing rate?
1. H+
2. levels of CO2 / acidity levels in blood (need for O2 not driving factor)
What is possible clinical importance of hyperventilation?
Could be kidney malfunction- body trying to get rid of acidity through lungs expelling CO2
If lungs are not working properly, how might this affect urine?
Urine will be more acidic. Urinary system is tied in to acidity balance