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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

4 elements account for more than 99% of the total number of atoms in the human body. What are they?





How Does the body respond to overheating?

Integumentary system begins to produce perspiration for evaporative cooling.

Vital Properties of the body (5)

1) Responsiveness

2) Growth & Differentiation

3) Reproduction

4) Movement

5) Metabolism & Excretion

Skeletal System other than providing a framework and support for movement, provides two other physiological contributions to the body?

1) Hematopoeisis (Formation of Blood Cells)

2) Storehouse for Calcium (Ca)

Muscular System contribution and it's three main types of Muscular tissue:

-Movement & Produces body heat

-Skeletal, Cardiac and Smooth

One of the main functions of the Nervous System:

Detection of stimuli & response through activation of muscles & glands via neurotransmitters

Respiratory supplies ____ and removes from the body?

-Supplies O2, and Removes CO2

Urinary system maintains what for the blood?

-Water, Salt & pH (acid-base balance) for the blood

How does the body respond to extremely low body temperature? Extremely high?

-Reactions slow down and eventually stop when it's too low

-Reactions too face and body proteins breakdown when it's too high

Type of feedback considered common within the human body:

-Negative feedback: Examples of factors monitored are Heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, oxygen, carbon diaxide

Type of feedback considered rare in the human body:

-Positive feedback: Rare because it leads to increase to stimulus, ex. Blood clotting, & contraction frequency in birth.

The "control center" for negative feedback to maintain homeostasis in the body


The Plasmalemma has what kind of a surrounding layer?

Phospholipid Bilayer

The phospholipid head on the external layer of the plasmalemma has what kind of relationship with H20? The tail?

-Head is Hydrophilic (Water Loving)

-Tail is Hydrophobic (Water Fearing)

Two general types of membrane proteins within the plasmalemma:

-Peripheral and Integral Proteins

The _____ Process of Diffusion alters the concentration in what way? The difference between the concentration is?

-Passive; Alters concentration of Higher to a Lower Concentration.

-Concentration Gradient

The _____ Process of Osmosis focuses primarily on diffusing what kind of molecules? How does it affect certain concentrations?

-Passive; Diffuses an area of lower WATER concentration toward an area of higher SOLUTE concentration.

Solutes are passively transported across a plasmalemma by a carrier protein. Direction follows the concentration gradient.

Facilitated Diffusion

An active transport that move specific substances across the plasmalemma despite any opposing concentration gradient.

Active Transport

In active transport, what are the carrier proteins that movie one solute in one direction to another in the opposite direction?

Exchange Pumps

This form of active transport contains 3 different forms?

-Endocytosis; Pinocytosis, Phagocytosis, & Receptor-mediated endocytosis

-Pinocytosis is also known as:

-Phagocytosis is also known as:

- "Cell Drinking" (Smaller Molecules)

- "Cell Eating" (Solid Particles)

The packaging of extracellular materials into a vesicle (a membrane-bound sac) for importation into the cell.


Active process when target molecules bind to specific receptor proteins on the membrane surface, triggering vesicle formation.

Reception-Mediated endocytosis

Active process The release of fluids and/or solids from cells when intercellular vesicles fuse with the plasmalemma


Increase surface area and actively engaged in absorbing materials from the extracellular fluid


Contains dissolved nutrients, ions, soluble & insoluble proteins, and waste products.


The _____ contains a high concentration of potassium ions, whereas the ______ contains a high concentration of ______ ions


-Extracellular fluid; Sodium

Within the cytosol are these masses of insoluble materials:

Inclusions/Inclusion Bodies

These bundles of fibers that provide framework that provides the cytoplasm strength and flexibility


List 5 examples of nonmembranous organelles






Groups of microtubules form these three structures:

Centrioles, cilia, and flagella

Contains the Serous Membrane

Visceral Layer

What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?

Sugars, Starch & Glycogen

What are the building blocks of Lipids?

Fatty acids & glycerol

What are the building blocks of proteins?

Amino acids

What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?


3 modes of Epithelial gland secretion:

Monocrine (Exocytosis)

Apocine (Loss of Cytoplasm)

Holocrine (Bursting of Glandular Cells)

Connective Tissues have 3 main parts:



-Mast Cells

4 Types of membranes:





3 Types of Muscle Tissue:




Which muscle tissues are voluntary? Involuntary?

Skeletal Muscle (Voluntary)

Cardiac & Smooth (Involuntary)

Essential for movement of chromosomes during cell division; organization of microtubules in cytoskeleton


Functions to provide Protein synthesis in a cell


Produces 95% of ATP required by the cell


Site of rRNA synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits


Packaging of newly synthesized proteins. Lipid Steroid, & Carbohydrate synthesis; calcium ion storage.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Storage, alteration & packaging of secretory products and lysosomal enzymes

Golgi Apparatus