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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

An __________________ is ground vibrations from the sudden release of elastic potential energy.


There are four many causes for earthquakes: ___________, ______________, ______________ and _____________.

Tectonic activity, magma movement, crust overloading or human activity.

The ____________, also known as the hypocenter, is the point bellow the earth's surface where breakage occurs.


The ____________ is the geographic point on the earth's surface directly above the focus.


The _________ is the displacement along an earthquake fault.


The __________ ___________ Theory states that: Regional stress causes strain deformation, a rupture occurs and the rocks return to the initial state.

Elastic Rebound

There are two main types of waves: __________ waves and ____________ waves.

body and seismic

The two types of body waves are ____ waves and _____ waves.

P and S

____ waves are the fastest of waves and travel through the earth through all materials. They are compression waves analogous to sound waves.


______ waves are slower than p-waves and cannot travel through liquids. They are analogous to shear waves.


________________ waves are the slowest seismic wave type and travel along the earth's surface.


____________ waves have snake-like motion with motion side to side along propogation.

Love (L)

____________ waves have retrograde wave-like motion.

Rayleigh (R)

In seismic waves, the ones that do the most damage are ______________ waves.


A ____________________ is a device that records seismic waves.


A ______________________ is a modern version of a seismograph.


A ______________ is the record of an earthquake as recorded by a seismograph.


The measure an earthquake's magnitude, the _________ scale is used.


The _____________ scale is logarithmic and measures earthquake magnitude. The value does not change with distance from the epicenter.


The ___________ ___________ scale measures the damage resulting from a quake at a given location. It ranges from I to XII.

Modified Mercalli

The _______ is the most commonly considered type of ground acceleration in engineering.

PHA (Peak Horizontal Acceleration)

Where do most earthquakes occur?

Along plate boundaries, meaning spreading zones, subduction zones ( convergence) or transform boundaries.

Name of hazards caused by earthquakes.

Structural failure from ground movement, liquifaction, landslides, tsunamis and fires.

To be useful, earthquake _________________ must be precise enough to warrant the cost of increased preparations.


What are man-made projects that may cause increased seismic activity?

Hydraulic fracturing, fluid extraction, oil recovery, mining and wastewater injection.