Causes And Effects Of Earthquakess

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Usually all earthquakes happen the same, but the way an earthquake actually occurs is such a spectacular process that everyone should get to know. They are created by many active fault zones within the Earth (Fronabarger). Most earthquakes are made along faults, tectonic plate boundary zones, or even along mid-oceanic ridges (Pidwirny). Small earthquakes can be caused by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments (Science Daily). Sun and moon cause tremors by creating tides in Earth 's crust (Live Science Staff). When plates squeeze or stretch, huge rocks shift making faults and causing earthquakes ("Earthquakes"). Faults are where rocks slide past each other and cause a crack ("Earthquakes"). Faults have been the result …show more content…
Plate tectonics collide, break apart, and grind against each other; moving Earth 's surface ("Earthquakes"). Rock on one side will shift up, down, or sideways, as the one on the other side moves the opposite way (Thompson 13). It then creates an area with many faults called a fault zone (Thompson 13). The bigger the faults are, the greater the chance an earthquake will occur (Thompson 13). As tectonic plates grind against each other, they build up pressure, causing stress (Thompson 15). Stress on Earth is so great that they need a way to release all the pressure (Thompson 15). Stand-up energy will be released at the weakest point of Earth 's crust, which is on a fault (Thompson 15). The bursts of energy cause a section of the fault to break loose and the two halves bounce past each other (Thompson 16). The release of this burst of energy comes in waves of motion called seismic waves (Thompson 16). These waves start from the center of the earthquake called the epicenter (Thompson 17). The shock waves travel upward and outward in a circular motion extremely fast (Thompson 17). They cover a distance of a hundred miles in just a few short seconds (Thompson17). People are able to sense these waves from hundreds of miles of the epicenter (Thompson 17). Seismic waves cause Earth to vibrate violently, which is what is felt on Earth 's surface (Thompson …show more content…
Earthquakes can cause an anchorages like the one in Alaska on March 27, 1964 (Rose 57). This caused houses to wobble around as the ground sank beneath them (Rose 57). In mountainous regions, earthquakes can cause landslides like in the town of Yungay, Peru (Pidwirny). The earthquake on May 31, 1970 engulfed the town with mud, rock, ice, and water, killing twenty thousand people (Pidwirny). The 8.5 magnitude earthquake lasted four minutes and caused a layer of rock to liquefy under the sea cliffs of Turnagain Heights (Rose 57). This left most of the houses slanted at an insane angle on the subsided ground (Rose 57). In 1964, Niigata 's earthquake caused widespread liquefaction across the town ("Earthquake Effects & Experiences"). This destroyed many buildings, causing them to sink into the ground ("Earthquake Effects & Experiences"). In Lama Prieta, California in 1989, had serious liquefaction causing major subsidence and horizontal sliding of the ground ("Earthquake Effects & Experiences"). Earthquakes can be very severe that can cause people to abandon their town (Rose 57). Pozzuoli, Italy was shaken by many small earthquakes in 1983 (Rose 57). The town has risen several yards and part of the town was left abandoned (Rose 57). A 7.2 earthquake hit Kobe, Japan on January 17, 1995, lasting twenty seconds

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