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109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Qualifications for Level A, B, and C tests
A: administered and administered by non-psychologists

B: require some technical knowledge

C: administered by at least Master's level clinicians AND one year supervision under psychologist
Norm-Referenced scores
can be compared to others in the norm group
Criterion-Referenced scores
aka Domain-Referenced and Content-Referenced

able to interpret performance in terms of extent of knowledge within a certain domain or external criterion
Self-Referenced scores
intraindividual comparisons
Functional Behavior Asessment
determine the function or purpose of a behavior by identifying antecedents and consequences
Testing the limits
A type of Dynamic Assessment

provide the examinee with additional cues after the standard administration to see how they perform with "scaffolding"
Computer adaptive testing
the computer tailor's the questions on the examinee's previous response

increased precision and efficiency

validity has been questioned
Actuarial vs. clinical judgement
actuarial alone is more accurate than clinical judgement alone
Techniques for assessing children
-establish rapport & maintain cooperation

- use descriptive statements (non-negative)
-Use reflections
-Provide Labeled Praise (helps guide child)
-Avoid critical statements
-open-ended questions (except starting questions with "why..."
Using anatomically correct dolls
-children who have been sexually abused are more likely than non-abused children to demonstrate sexual activity with dolls

-anatomically correct dolls do not cause young children to act more suggestively than other dolls

-anatomical dolls may not be more effective than regular dolls, anatomical drawings or other media
Factors to consider with culturally diverse populations
-purpose of the assessment: be clear and use only procedures needed to achieve stated purpose

-test content: be sensitive to cultural loading of content and understand that there are NO culture-fair/culture-free tests

- Alternative Methods: when possible, use culturally sensitive measures in conjunction to or in place of traditional measures

-ethnic norms: use the right normative group

-role of examiner: may interfere with examination process (research is inconsistent on the relationship between race of examiner and examinee, rapport may be most important)
Spearman's Two-Factor Theory of Intelligence
general intelligence (g)
specific factors (s)

performance depends on "g" plus any one or more "s" factors that are unique to the task
Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
Horn and Cattell

Crystallized (Gc): acquired knowledge and skills

Fluid (Gf): relatively culture-free, does not depend on instruction and enables person to solve novel problems
Carrol's Three Stratum Theory
Stratum III: g

Stratum II: 8 broad abilities including Gf

Stratum I: specific abilities that link to on of Stratum II abilities
McGrew's Cattell-Horn-Carrol Theory of Cognitive Abilities

10 broad stratum level abilities
70 narrow-stratum abilities that are linked to 10 broad stratum levels

based on extensive research
used for KABC and Woodcock-Johnson III
Convergent thinking
rational, logical reasoning and using logical judgement and consideration of fact

Divergent Thinking
nonlogical processes and requires creativity and flexibility to derive multiple solutions

Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
"successful intelligence" - ability to adapt, modify and accomplish goals with 3 abilities (analytical, creative, practical)

Sternberg believed that traditional tests focused on analytical and neglected creative and practical abilities
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
8 types of cognitive abilities

Relationship between heredity and intelligence
the greater the genetic similarity, the higher the correlation between intelligence

identical twins living together: .85
identical twins raised apart: .65
fraternal twins together: .58
Bio sibs raised together: .45
bio sibs raised apart .24
parent child together: .39
parent child apart: .22
adoptive parent and child: .18
heredibility estimate
in industrialized countries, approximately 32-65% of variability is due to genetics

** only applied to groups, to population it was tested on and not between groups **
Confluence Model
children's IQ scores decrease from first born to last
Flynn Effect
IQ scores have increased over the past 70 years

On average, IQ scores increase by three points each year (due to increase in fluid intelligence)

attributed to environmental factors

It applies to those whose IQ is 70-109 and actually decreases for those with IQ >110
Aging and Intelligence
IQ about stable by age 7

Horn proposed that Crystalized intelligence increases until about 60 and then decreases

Fluid intelligence peaks in adolescence - Decreases in fluid intelligence are related to declined efficiency in working memory which is attributed to PROCESSING SPEED
Seattle Longitudinal Study
cross-sequential design

cross-sectional methodology likely to show declines in IQ after mid-20s

when looking longitudinally, only PERCEPTUAL SPEED declined substantially prior to 60, but many other abilities were stable until 70-75
Factors influencing cognitive decline
-decline in the speed and efficiency of manipulating information (scores will improve when given unlimited time)

-physical health is strong predictor of maintaining cognitive functioning, especially cardiovascular functioning

-declines due to disuse (reversible with increased use, training and practice)
Gender differences in intelligence
males and females are not different in terms of IQ

Females better at verbal during school years (less likely to have reading LD)

Males: better at spacial and and math skills with spacial being the biggest gender gap

--declined in recent years and small--
intelligence differences between races
whites tend to outperform A.A. by 1SD, however this has narrowed a little since 70s
Slope Bias
differential Validity

the predictor is more accurate for one group than the other
Intercept Bias

validity coefficients are equal, but the mean is different and therefore one group consistently scores lower than the other and over or under predicts for the groups
Stanford Binet-5
2-85 years old

assess g and assist in psychoed planning, diagnose dvpt disabilities and strengths

g with 5 cognitive factors from Cattell-Horn-Carroll

2 Routing (Object Series Matrices and Vocabulary)
16-90 years old

Weschler's view of intelligence: interrelated functions to "act purposefully, to think rationally and deal effectively with his/her env"

Practice effects: +4.5 in FSIQ
Rarely does IQ decrease, except once 70 years old likely to decrease by 7 or 8
Core: digit span & Arithmetic

Supplemental: LN sequencing
Core: Vocab, Similarities, Information

Supplemental: Comprehension

Highest score for: Mild cog. impaired, Alzheimers, MDD, ADHD, TBI
Core: Symbol Search, Coding

Supplemental: Cancellation

Lowest score for: Alzheimer's, MDD, ADHD, TBI
Core: Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Visual Puzzles

Supplemental: Figure Weights, PIcture Completion

Lowest score for Mild Cog. Impairment
6-16 years old

more neurocognitively based, 6 cattel-horn-carroll abilities
Autistic children's score pattern on WISC
HIGH: Block design, matrix reasoning, picture concepts

LOW: comprehension, symbol search, coding
ADHD children's score pattern on WISC
HIGH: Picture concepts, Picture completion, word reasoning, similarities

LOW: cancellation, arithmetic, coding
2-7 years old

verbal comprehension, perceptual organization
3-18 year olds

designed to be culturally fair by minimizing verbal instructions and responses

can be interpreted by CHC or Luria model
4-90 years old

brief screener for Crystalized intelligence and nonverbal abilities

fluid, crystallized and composite IQ scores
Cognitive Assessment System
5-17 years old

assesses the cognitive processes central to learning

(PASS: Planning, attention, simultaneous processing and sequential processing)
Slossen Tests
2-7 years old (SIT-P-1)

screening test for IQ to evaluate need for further testing

4-65 years old (SIT-R3-1)
screening test for crystallized intelligence...OK FOR VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS
Denver Dvpt Screening Test
0-6 years old

brief screener for dvpt. delay

if child fails item that 90% of children get, they are considered delayed

can be administered by paraprofessional
Bayley Scales
1-42 months old

identify current developmental status of child

most recent version includes a link between assessment and intervention
Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence
3-12 months

assesses selective attention to novel stimuli which is presumed to reflect ability to retain info.

used to ID MR and cognitive impairment
Columbia mental maturity
3-9 years old


indicates whether a drawing presented belongs with the others

good for: cerebral palsy brain damage, MR, speech impairment, limited english
Peabody Picture Vocabulary
2-90 years old

Test RECEPTIVE vocabulary, nonverbal estimate of intelligence

examinee indicates which picture illustrates meaning of word examiner presented

good for: orthopedic disabilities
Haptic Intelligence Scale
16+ years old


tactile stimuli
Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude
3-17 years old

measure of learning ability


administered verbally or in pantomime
2-20 years old

match a set of response cards to corresponding illustration on easel

emphasizes fluid intelligence

NO VERBAL OR WRITTEN RESPONSE (good for lang. impaired or ESL)
Raven's Progressive Matrices
6+years old

nonverbal measure of g

good for: hearing impaired, ESL, aphasia, limited physical ability

identify missing component in matrix

5-11 years - colored matrices
Advanced Progressive Matrices for adolescents
Kuhlmann-Anderson Test
achievement test for children K-12

less language based than others
Woodcock-Johnson III
2-90 years old

Cognitive Abilities and Achievement test

CHC theory
Wonderlic Test
12 minute test of intelligence for adults (usually for employment purposes)

also has a 40 minute version to evaluate employability
Instructional Assessments
directly linked to information presented in the classroom

-curriculum Based Measures

-performance based measures
curriculum-based measures
periodic assessments of school-age children used to evaluate instructional effectiveness and make decisions on instruction plans
diagnostic dynamic indicators of basic literacy skills

curriculum based measure

one minute probe that regularly monitor literacy and reading skills
Performance based assessment
"centerpiece" of Goals 2000

observe and judge a skill that is caried out in an activity

good for assessing culturally and linguistically diverse students however scoring can be influenced by prior knowledge of the student (not what was learned and performed)
Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic abilities
5-12 years old

evaluate strengths and weaknesses of linguistic skills, diagnose dyslexia and track progress

based on Osgood's communication model: different channels of comm. psycholinguistic process, levels of organization and recent information processing
5-94 years old

rapid screening device for reading, spelling, math

help Dx LD
Wechsler individual achievement test

4-50 years old

assesses 8 areas of achievement that were identified by IDEA legislation

help Dx LD and identify IEP goals and interventions
SAT-I: reasoning
-used to predict college performance
-writing subtest is best predictor of first year college GPA
-SAT score + High School GPA is the best predictor of college success
-less predictive of college GPA when person scores in middle range
- Coaching for SAT increases score by 25-35 and most helpful for "rusty skills" or "nonexistant"

SAT-II: subjects (English, History, Social Studies, Math, Science, Language)
evaluate readiness for graduate level work

Analytical writing, verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning

Subject tests: biochemistry, biology, chemistry, computer science, lit., math, physics, psychology
Multiple Aptitude Test Batteries
used for educational/vocational counseling for HS and college students

consists of several tests that measure different aptitudes

Differential Aptitude Tests
5 subtests that are job-related
3 subtests that are broad intellectual abilities

used for educational/career counseling for middle and high school students or for vocational counseling and employment selection for adults
General Aptitude Test Battery
assess aptitudes relevant to different occupations

nine aptitudes that are highly speeded

Psychomotor Tests
assess speed, coordination and motor responses

LOW VALIDITY COEFFICIENTS (susceptible to practice effects and highly specific)

- no underlying psychomotor factor-
mechanical aptitude tests
assess broad range of functions including dexterity, perceptual and spatial skills, mechanical reasoning, mechanical information

females: better at dexterity and perceptual discrimination

males: better at mechanical reasoning and information
validity of interest inventories
good predictors of job satisfaction, persistance, job choice

LESS valid than intelligence tests for academic/occupational success

better if combined with self-confidence, self-efficacy and personality inventories
Strong Interest Inventory
General Occupational Themes, Basic Interest Scales (both developed with logical content method) and Occupational Scales (developed with empirical criterion keying)

15+ years old
must be computer scored

General Occupational Theme: Hollands 6 occupational categories (RIASEC)

Basic Interest Scales: related to the occupational themes, but includes 30 different interests

Occupational Scales: degree to which the test-taker's interest are similar to satisfied workers in a particular field

Personal Styles Scales: work style, learning env, leadership style, risk taking, team orientation

Administrative indices: type of responses and consistency in responses
Kuder Tests
high school, college, adult

developed with emperical criterion keying

Occupational Scales: strength of relationship between examinees interests and satisfied workers in different field

college major scales: help ID major

Vocational Interest Scales: 10 broad areas similar to Holland's

Dependability Indices: assess validity

Most recent includes career planning for all school ages
Self-Directed Search

match person's preference with characteristics of job

Realistic: technical, physical, outdoor

Investigative: scientific, mat, analytical

Artistic: writing, art, ddrama

Social: helping others

Enterprising: competition, mgmt, public speaking

Conventional: structured, unambiguous, detail oriented
Congruence (SDS)
consistency in an examinee's expressed interests
coherence (SDS)
degree to which an examinee's interests match the RIASEC model
Consistency (SDS)
similarity of examinee's two strongest interest areas
Differentiation (SDS)
distinctiveness of examinees interest
commonness (SDS)
frequence of response pattern that occurs in normative groups
logical content method
items are selected based on reason and deductive logic

may or may not be guided by a theory

ex: Edwards Personality Preference Scale
Theoretic Method (of item selection)
items chosen based on a personality theory and construct validity is used to determine if it fits theory

Ex: Myers Briggs
Empirical Criterion Keying
proposed items are given to criterion groups and those items that actually discriminate between groups are kept

Factor Analysis (for item selection)
administer a large pool of items to a group and then factor analyze and include the items that assess the factors of interest

Ex: NEO-5 and 16 PF
18+ with reading level of 5, 6, or 8th grade (manual says 5)

MMPI-A for 14-18 year old

Content Scales derived from rational content analysis (correlations of .5 or greater with total scale and low correlation with other scales)

LFK: V shape = fake good, common in child custody

proven to be inadequate in dx

123: neurotic triad/conversion v
678: paranoid valley, psychotic v
psychometrics: normed on highly educated, individual scale validity is questioned because highly correlated

A.A. score higher and lower scores than whites - not clinically significant
Edwards Personal Preference Schedule
based on Murray's personality theory (15 basic needs)
-forced choice between 2 needs
-can compare relative strengths, but not absolute strength of needs
16 personality factors

developed with factor analysis

compare profile to a profile of a specific group

185 multiple choice
NEO Personality inventory
Big 5 traits (OCEAN)

Big 5 developed with atheoretical lexical approach - factor analysis to 5 factors

replicable across cultures (except opennes to experience for asian and non-western)
Myers-Briggs indicator
based on Jung's dimenstions
4 bipolar dimenstions

forced-choice format

used for career counseling
used to help dx based on 5 axis

18+ years old
MACI: 13-19 years old
1) free association
2) Inquiry phase

determinant (form, mvmt, color)
Form Quality (how similar is what they saw to actual shape)
Popularity/Frequency of response

Psychometrics: EXNER
-higher inter-rater reliability and validity

scores correlated with Psychotic d/o: form quality, human response, deviant verbalizations, schiz, perceptual and ego impaired index

correlated with intelligence: developmental quality, organizational activity, complexity, human, form quality, # of responses
based on Murray's needs

interpretation: look at who the hero is, intensity, frequency, and duration of needs
15+ years old

detect presence of brain damage and determine severity

administer in conjunction with WAIS/WISC and MMPI

0-.2: normal functioning
.3-.4: mild impairment
.5-.7: moderate impairment
.8-1.0: severe impairment
Luria Nebraska
highly standardized to assess neuropsychological functioning

0: normal
2: brain injury

more complete coverage of deficits and more precise localization of damage than H-R
brief measure of visual-motor integration

3+years old

screener for brain damage (USE IN CONJUNCTION)

assess school readiness in first graders, predict academic performance, ID emotional probs and LD

performance affected by education and up to age 10 correlate with intelligence
Benton Visual Retention Test
visual memory, visual perception, visual motor skills

used to ID damage

8+ years old

reproduce figure by memory
Beery-Buktenica Dvptl test
visual-motor integration

2+ years

ID deficits associated with neuro impairments or LD, bxl problems
Wisconsin Card Sort
6-80 years old

assess abstract concepts and cognitive shift strategies

sensitive to frontal lobe damage, impaired linked to: ETOH, autism, schizophrenia and malingering
Stroop Color-Word
assess ability to suppress habitual response, cognitive flexibility, selective attention, response inhibition

sensitive to frontal lobe damage, poor performance associated with ADHD, mania, depression, schizophrenia
Tower of London
measures attention, memory, exec. functioning

impaired linked to: frontal damage, ADHD, autism, depression
Wechsler Memory Scale
measure of memory for older adolescents and adults

can be used as screener for cog. impairment

compare to WISC to determine if memory is consistent with IQ
screener for impairment in older adults

assesses: orientation, registration, attention/calculation, delayed recall, language, visual construction

max score is 30, <23 = impaired

relies heavily on verbal
Glasgow Coma Scale
assess level of consciousness after brain injury

3-8 indicates unconscious
Rancho Scale of Cog. Functioning
measure of recovery after head injury

Level I: no response

Level X: purposeful approrpriate
assess mood, bxl and physical aspects of depi

14-19: minimal
20-28: moderate
29-63: severe
assessment of ADHD
broad-band scale: behavioral assessment system for children, CBCL, Conners

Narrow-Band: obtain detailed info on the individual's symptoms to facilitate tx planning
Assessment of autism
chidl autism rating scale

autism behavior checklist

Autism Diagnostic Interview

Assessment of MR
subaverage intellectual abilities

- all disabled persons evaluated to determine needs, provided IEP for least restrictive environment, assignment to special ed not SOLELY based on IQ

Vineland: evaluate personal and social skills, 0-90 years, used for MR, autism, ADHD, dememtia

AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scales: adaptive living skills in pesonal, community, social, and adjustment areas, 3-18 years old, also has adult version for 18+ year sold
Larry P. vs. Riles
A.A. children were overrepresented in special ed

determined IQ tests are racially/culturally biased and discriminate against blacks