The Influence Of Nature And Nurture In Prenatal Development

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Based on personal opinion as well as on scientific, peer-reviewed published evidence I conceive that nature and nurture both cooperate to shape prenatal development. Nature and nurture hold a close relationship where without the other, each on its own, is not capable of providing empirical evidence for development itself. Genetics and the environment work alongside to shape children’s intelligence quotients (IQs) where factors such as: schooling quality, parental education and birth weight highly contribute to the changes in the IQ of individuals (Pacheco, Hedges, Schilling, & Morton, 2013). Teratogens such as the nicotine chemical found in cigarettes has been linked to many perinatal problems in infants, such that include: low birth weight, …show more content…
In the study, “Pre- and Postnatal Drivers of Childhood Intelligence: Evidence from Singapore,” researchers intended to answer whether genetics or the environment in a child’s early life determines its intelligence and if so, to what extent. The study was composed of 662 children between the ages 7 to 9; 342 children from a bottom-ranked north-eastern school and 320 from top-ranked south-eastern and western schools. This longitudinal study took place in Singapore, started in 1999, and was carried out over a period of 3 years, throughout which The Singapore Cohort Study of the Risk Factors of Myopia (SCORM) was used as a data source. First, the participants were tested in non-verbal reasoning ability following the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices. The parents of the participants were then given a questionnaire to help assess certain demographics, they were also asked questions regarding the mother’s work status and if the child had been breastfed. All 662 children were tested for the same independent variables, though the half sample (n=320; from the top-ranked school), included other variables as well. Once the participant’s IQs were recorded at the age of 11, the researchers analyzed the possible drivers that led to the changes in score among the children. Results were categorized by linear regression, ordered logit and multinomial model to help better understand the relationship between nature and nurture and its effects on IQ changes. As anticipated, researchers found that genetics and environment collaborate to influence the children’s IQs. The mother’s level of education, her IQ, and the home environment the child is brought up in impact the child’s intelligence. This serves to show that the higher the maternal education is the more likely

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