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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the definition of prognosis?
Prediction of the expected outcome of a disease with or without treatment
Ideally, a prognosis should include what five things?
1) The variability in course relative to treatment options
2) A time reference
3) A risk of treatment- related death (or other untoward reaction)
4) Cost
5) The nature of the benefit attainable
What is the definition of case fatality?
% of patients w/ a disease who die of it
What is the definition of survival rate?
% of patients surviving a defined period of time from some point in the course of their disease
What is the definition of a response?
% of patients showing some evidence of improvement after an intervention
What is the definition of remission?
% of patients entering a phase in which disease is no longer detectable
What is the definition of recurrence?
% of patients who experience a return of disease after a disease-free interval
What are the 2 questions that provide the rationale for creating a life table?
1) What is the likelihood of surviving for x years after diagnosis?
2) What is the likelihood of surviving another year, given that the patient has already survived for y years since diagnosis
How do you calculate the probability of surviving 2 years?
P1 x P2
What is the probability of surviving 3 years?
P1 x P2 x P3
*What does a survival curve show?
Cumulative survival over time
When comparing multiple survival curves, what does a steeper slope mean?
Steeper slope= worse survival
-Survival rate VS number of years after diagnosis
Why does the slope of a survival curve flatten out towards the right side of the graph?
Because even if survival remains constant it still appears flatter as the population decreases
What does the y-value mean when interpreting a survival curve?
CUMULATIVE survival up to that time point
What is the Kaplan- Meier method of prognosis evaluation?
Where takes into consideration of the time that each animal survived, don't lose any patient information- graph is percent surviving (y-axis) VS months after enrollment (x-axis)
What is the equation and meaning of relative survival rate?
Relative survival rate= observed survival in patients with disease/ expected survival if disease were absent
-"how much WORSE off is this patient due to the disease?"
What is something that the relative survival rate doesn't take into consideration?
Relative survival rate doesn't change w/ age or sex i.e. says cancer is no more severe in older patients
*****The only population that you can generalize from when gathering population data is which population?
The population from which the study sample was drawn
-Big difference b/w population based and clinical based
What are prognoses based on?
Quantitative expressions of natural history of disease
Ideally, a prognosis should include what 3 things?
1) Variability of outcomes and side effects associated w/ different treatments
2) A time line
3) Cost
What are 2 methods for handling data on natural history of disease?
1) Life tables
2) Kaplan-Meier method
What are 3 pitfalls of a prognoses?
1) Biases due to diagnostic methods
2) Observed vs relative survival rate
3) Bases due to non- randomly selected study population