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22 Cards in this Set
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What is the definition of prognosis?

Prediction of the expected outcome of a disease with or without treatment


Ideally, a prognosis should include what five things?

1) The variability in course relative to treatment options
2) A time reference 3) A risk of treatment related death (or other untoward reaction) 4) Cost 5) The nature of the benefit attainable 

What is the definition of case fatality?

% of patients w/ a disease who die of it


What is the definition of survival rate?

% of patients surviving a defined period of time from some point in the course of their disease


What is the definition of a response?

% of patients showing some evidence of improvement after an intervention


What is the definition of remission?

% of patients entering a phase in which disease is no longer detectable


What is the definition of recurrence?

% of patients who experience a return of disease after a diseasefree interval


What are the 2 questions that provide the rationale for creating a life table?

1) What is the likelihood of surviving for x years after diagnosis?
2) What is the likelihood of surviving another year, given that the patient has already survived for y years since diagnosis 

How do you calculate the probability of surviving 2 years?

P1 x P2


What is the probability of surviving 3 years?

P1 x P2 x P3


*What does a survival curve show?

Cumulative survival over time


When comparing multiple survival curves, what does a steeper slope mean?

Steeper slope= worse survival
Survival rate VS number of years after diagnosis 

Why does the slope of a survival curve flatten out towards the right side of the graph?

Because even if survival remains constant it still appears flatter as the population decreases


What does the yvalue mean when interpreting a survival curve?

CUMULATIVE survival up to that time point


What is the Kaplan Meier method of prognosis evaluation?

Where takes into consideration of the time that each animal survived, don't lose any patient information graph is percent surviving (yaxis) VS months after enrollment (xaxis)


What is the equation and meaning of relative survival rate?

Relative survival rate= observed survival in patients with disease/ expected survival if disease were absent
"how much WORSE off is this patient due to the disease?" 

What is something that the relative survival rate doesn't take into consideration?

Relative survival rate doesn't change w/ age or sex i.e. says cancer is no more severe in older patients


*****The only population that you can generalize from when gathering population data is which population?

The population from which the study sample was drawn
Big difference b/w population based and clinical based 

What are prognoses based on?

Quantitative expressions of natural history of disease


Ideally, a prognosis should include what 3 things?

1) Variability of outcomes and side effects associated w/ different treatments
2) A time line 3) Cost 

What are 2 methods for handling data on natural history of disease?

1) Life tables
2) KaplanMeier method 

What are 3 pitfalls of a prognoses?

1) Biases due to diagnostic methods
2) Observed vs relative survival rate 3) Bases due to non randomly selected study population 