• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


Any solid, liquid, or vapor that cools heat from another body or substance by absorbing it.


The process of cooling or removing heat.

What was the first refrigerant?


Refrigerants are special chemical mixtures, grouped under a standard numbering system and referred to by. ..

CFC, HCFC, HFC, or R alpha-numeric indicator

The most common refrigerant?


What's the four most common halocarbons refrigerants?

R-12, R-22, R-500 and R-502

Desirable characteristics of a good, safe refrigerant?

1. High latent heat value

2. Nontoxic

3. Non-flammable

4. Noncorrosive

5. Environmentally acceptable

6. Chemically stable

7. Lubricant soluble

8. Easily handled and transported

9. Detectable at low concentrations

10. Field system charging ability

What is CFC?


What does CFC contain?

Chlorine, fluorine, and carbon

Three of the most common type of CFCs?

R-11, R-12, R-114

CFCs are known to deplete ________.

Stratospheric ozone

What does HCFC stand for?


What does HCFC contain?

Hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, and carbon

Most common HCFC?


What makes HCFC less stable after they enter the atmosphere?


What is HFC?


HFC contains what elements?

Hydrogen, fluorine and carbon

HFCs do not deplete the ozone layer because they do not contain___________.


R-12 (CFC) is being replaced by __________.

R-134a (HFC)

Ozone depletion potential of R-134a is _______ because it has no _________.

Zero, chlorine

A blend of two refrigerants that form a single refrigerant compound having a boiling point independent of the individual refrigerants?

Azeotropic Blend

A blend of three individual refrigerants having characteristics similar to a particular refrigerant.

Ternary blend

A term associated with refrigerant blends leaking from a refrigeration system at different rates because the individual refrigerant components have different vapors pressures.


Two types of refrigerant oil

Mineral and synthetic

The compounds in refrigerant mineral oil can be categorized into what three main groups?

1. Paraffinic

2. Naphtha nick

3. Aromatic

A refrigerant oil that has a high affinity for water is considered _________.


What mineral oil is commonly used in navy systems?

ROC-2 (VVL-825 Type 2)

Three of the most popular synthetic oils are:

1. Alkylbenzenes

2. Glycols

3. Polyesters (Esters)

True or False

Different types of refrigerant oils should not be mixed.


Two ozone layers are?

Stratospheric and tropospheric

The stratospheric ozone is the area of the atmosphere between __ to __ miles above the earth.

7 to 30 miles

Ozone in the stratosphere above the earth consists of molecules containing __ oxygen atoms.


The tropospheric level is the area in the atmosphere from ___ to ___ miles above.

Ground (0) - 7 miles

The elements in refrigerants that causes ozone depletion is ______


The chemical found in the upper stratosphere indicating ozone depletion is _________________.

Chlorine monoxide

The rise in the amount of _________ measured in the stratosphere during the past two decades matches the rise in the amount of _________.

Chlorine, fluorine

It is also determined that the rise in the amount of __________ measured in the stratosphere over the past two decades matches the rise in ______ emissions during the same period.

Chlorine, CFC

Estimates indicate that up to __________ ozone molecules can be destroyed by a single chlorine atom.


Name 3 effects of ozone depletion to the human body.

1. Increased cases of skin cancer

2. Increased cases of cataracts

3. Weakening of the immune system

Name 3 effects of ozone depletion to the environment.

1. Affects the growth and reproduction of phytoplankton

2. Reduce crop yields and marine life

3. Increased ground level ozone (smog)

When did the Molina-Rowland theory start?


The Molina-Rowland theory resulted in the United states banning the use of ____ in non essential aerosols in _____.

CFCs, 1978

Montreal Protocol consists of how many nations including the US?


When was the Montreal Protocol agreement signed?


The Montreal Protocol is a treaty that controls the production, import and export of ______________, ______________, and ________________.

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), halons, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC)

Class I, Group I consisted of which fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons?

1. CFC-11

2. CFC-12

3. CFC-113

4. CFC-114

Class I, Group II consisted of what type of Halons?

1. Halon-1211

2. Halon-1301

Class II consists of ______________.

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)

What refrigerants are considered "Class I refrigerants" by EPA?

R-11, R-12, R-114, and R-500

ODP stands for?

Ozone depletion potential

R-11 has an ODP value of _______?


The London Agreement that strengthened the montreal protocol consisted of how many nations?


In what month and year was the London Agreement signed?

June 1990

The Copenhagen agreement was signed to eliminate globally the use and consumption of ______ by the year ______.

HCFCs, 2030

The Copenhagen agreement consisted of how many nations?


The primary thrust of the Clean Air Act is to capture and ultimately eliminate the use of _______________.


Title VI of the CAA calls for a phaseout of _____ and ______ production.


The CAA also banned the venting of CFCs and HCFCs after what date?

July 1, 1992

What section from the provisions of title VI of the CAA lists ozone depleting substances by class and group with the provision that the EPA will add to this list any substance which is found to have an ODP of 0.2 or greater, or any substance which EPA finds "causes or contributes significantly to harmful effects on the stratosphere ozone layer".

Section 602

Which section is known as the national recycling and emissions reduction program?

Section 608

Definition of De Minimus Release

Minute quantities of refrigerant released to the atmosphere in the course of making GOOD FAITH ATTEMPTS to recover or safely dispose of refrigerant.

Three types of releases permitted are:

1. Attempts to recapture, recycle, or safely dispose of refrigerant.

2. Leaks or emission in the course of normal operation

3. Mixtures of nitrogen and R-22 that are permitted as holding charges our as a leak test gases

Five main requirements for recycling, emissions, reduction and disposal of Class I and Class II substances issued by EPA under section 608.

1. Technicians must observe certain practices

2. EPA certified

3. Certified Equipment only

4. Require the repair of substantial leaks

5. Require the proper removal and recovery of ODS

Five main requirements for recycling, emissions, reduction and disposal of Class I and Class II substances issued by EPA under section 608.

1. Technicians must observe certain practices

2. EPA certified

3. Certified Equipment only

4. Require the repair of substantial leaks

5. Require the proper removal and recovery of ODS

Two types of refrigerant that can be sold.

Virgin and reclaimed

Three violations of the CAA

1. Knowingly releasing CFC or HCFC refrigerants while repairing appliances.

2. Falsifying or failing to keep required records.

3. Failing to reach required evacuation levels before opening or disposing of appliances.

Three penalties for violating the CAA

1. May lose certification

2. May be fined

3. May be required to appear in federal court.

Whistle blowers who supply information that leads to a penalty against a technician who is intentionally venting may receive an award up to __________?


A fine of up to ___________ per day per violation may result from violations of the CAA.


Name 3 good service practices.

1. Finding and repairing leaks

2. Keeping systems tight

3. Recovering and recycling refrigerant

What type of repairs include those involving removal of the compressor, condenser, evaporator or auxiliary heat exchanger coil.

Major Repairs

What type of repairs involve an operation on equipment that is not followed by an evacuation top the environment like replacement of pressure switches, relays, etc.

Minor repairs

Failure of a system to hold a vacuum after evacuation indicates what.

A leak may exist in the system

Whenever a system is opened for servicing or maintenance, the system filter drier should be ____________.


What should be checked to determine a safe pressure for leak testing.

The nameplate data for the low-side test pressure.

_________ by itself will have the least damaging effect on the environment when ____________________.

Nitrogen, when leak checking a unit

Two types of methods to check for leaks.

Soap Bubbles and electronic leak detector

The reason for refrigeration system dehydration is to ____________.

Remove water and vapor

This type of testing is used to pinpoint system leaks

Soap Bubbles testing

Effective method for locating general area of leaks

Electronic leak detector

Evacuation of a system is a suggested method of ________________.

Dehydration and leak checking

If moisture is allowed to remain in an operating refrigeration system, what type of acids are likely to form?

Hydrochloric, hydrofluoric

Three factors which will affect the time needed for evacuation.

1. Size of the equipment

2. Ambient temperature

3. Amount of moisture in the system

When evacuating use a vacuum pump capable of pulling a vacuum of ________.

500 microns

A length of tubing that provides access to the refrigerant inside a small appliance or room air conditioner.

Process stub

Can a process stub be resealed at the conclusion of repair or service.


EPA is requiring that small appliances and room air conditioner sold after __________, be provided with a __________ to facilitate removal of the refrigerant at servicing.

November 15, 1993, process stub

Never use oxygen or compressed air to pressurize appliances to check for leaks because when when mixed with compressor oil and refrigerant they can ___________.


Never use oxygen or compressed air to pressurize appliances to check for leaks because when when mixed with compressor oil and refrigerant they can ___________.


ASHRAE Std 15 require an _____________ for A-1 refrigerants in commercial equipment rooms.

Oxygen deprivation sensor

ASHRAE STD 34 refrigerant safety classifies A-1 as the designation being the ______________.

Moat safe

Name all A-1 Refrigerants

R-11, R-12, R-22, R-114, R-500, R-502 and HFC-134a

To remove refrigerant in any condition from a system and store it in an external container workout necessarily testing.


To clean refrigerant for re-use by oil separation and single or multiple passes through devices, such as replaceable core filter driers, which reduce moisture, acidity and particulate matter.


Restore refrigerant to original chemical and material specifications, verified by sampling and must conform to ARI-700 specifications.


4 reasons for recovering refrigerants

1. Prevention of venting to the atmosphere

2. Prevention of stratospheric ozone depletion

3. Adequate supplies for service after production bans of CFCs

4. Only recovered and recycled CFC refrigerants will be available for equipment.

Two system dependent type systems intended for small appliances

1. Whirlpool bag

2. Amana carbon absorption system

Refrigerant recovery devices, if manufactured after _______________, must be equipped with ____________.

November 15, 1993, low loss fittings

What are some methods and devices currently used for monitoring the 80% fill level in a recovery tank.

Floaty devices, thermistors, or weighing scales

Under no condition should a disposable cylinder be used to _________________.

Recover refrigerant

Disposable cylinders are used for ___________ refrigerant only.


Returnable/Reusable cylinders possess a stamp on the shoulder which furnishes what information?

1. Tare weight

2. DOT spec number

3. Test date

4. Water capacity

Requirements for shipping refrigerant cylinders:

1. They must be positioned upright

2. Only containers designated "refillable" by DOT are top be used to transport recovered pressurized refrigerant.

3. Check that the refrigerant container meets DOT standards.

4. Proper labeling and shipping paperwork.

All commercial cylinders for recovering refrigerant shall have ______ colored bodies and _________ tops.

Gray, yellow

Navy cylinders for recovering refrigerants shall have _________ bodies and __________ shoulders.

Orange and yellow