The Montreal Protocol

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The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

1. Introduction to the international agreement

The Montreal Protocol came into effect as a result of the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. The Convention founded ozone depletion as highly global environmental problem that required international consensus on regulating the use of CFC’s. Two years later, on September 16th 1987, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed by 24 countries and eventually entered into force on January 1st 1989. The Protocol was created to phase out the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances in order to effectively address the global atmospheric problem of stratospheric ozone
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In other words, the development of an effective stratospheric ozone policy took considerable time and effort to get all countries to come to a consensus regarding the importance of the problem. The policy evolved from solely regulating the use of CFC in aerosol spray cans to a global response on actions regarding stratospheric ozone depletion. At first, the United Stated was the only country that recognized ozone deficiency as a major environmental issue. Indeed, the majority of European countries did not believe that a serious problem existed and CFC manufacturers disputed all regulations (Morrisette, 1989). Although considerable disagreements existed at first between countries, the abundance of scientific facts proving the need to address the problem of ozone depletion, finally pushed countries to come to a consensus and agree on the Montreal Protocol in …show more content…
Firstly, in the original protocol of 1987, article 2 paragraph 9 states that adjustments to the substances in Annexes A, B, C and/or E are authorized as well as modifications to the levels of production and consumption (Ozone Secretariat, 1991). In fact, this “(…) unique adjustment provision (…) enables the Parties to the Protocol to respond quickly to new scientific information and agree to accelerate the reductions required on chemicals already covered by the Protocol” (Ozone Secretariat, 1991). As evidence evolves the parties can also amend the protocol to assure the regulation of new chemicals. In all, the Protocol has undergone six adjustments and four amendments (Ozone Secretariat, 1991). Science is a subject that continuously evolves. Therefore, allowing the parties to make changes to the protocol goals produces evidence as to why the goals were so successful. For instance, if the parties had not adjusted the protocol as they did, it would have probably not generated so much success. Secondly, implementing trade sanctions demonstrated a success since it diminished the global transfers of the harmful substances. Indeed, this is highlighted in article 4 of the Protocol. In other words, these sanctions aimed to reduce the import and/or export of the controlled substances

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