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27 Cards in this Set

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Macromolecules with chemical bonds that store majority of stored energy in organisms

Glycogen and starch

Starch

Storage polysaccharide within plants

Glycogen

Storage polysaccharide within animals

How is energy released and when is it required?

Energy is released through the breakdown of larger molecules into their smaller molecular counterparts. Energy is required for the reverse process

Carbohydrates/Polysaccharides

Long chains of monosaccharides (glucose) joined together

Why are carbohydrates insoluble?

So that they can be stored easily and not affect the osmotic balance of the cell

Glucose

Carbohydrates are broken down by the digestive system to glucose. Glucose is used in respiration to make ATP

Excess glucose?

Excess glucose in the body is stored as glycogen and some is converted to fat and stored in the adipose tissue

Glycogen

Long chains of glucose molecules, which need to have their bonds broken before they can be used in cellular respiration

When are lipids used as a source for ATP?

During muscle contraction whilst exercising. Broken down to release glucose for energy production once the glycogen stores are depleted

Name 5 lipids

Phospholipids, fats, oils, waxes and steroids

When is protein used as a source of ATP?

Protein is only used to produce ATP under conditions of prolonged starvation and in people competing in marathons/triathlons

5 Key Uses of ATP

Movement, synthesis, stable environment, repair, growth and reproduction

How is ATP used for movement?

Cells require kinetic energy to move or change their shape

Photosynthetic autotrophs

use light energy from the sun to create chemical energy (glucose) from inorganic compounds in the process of photosynthesis

Cellulose

Main component of cell wall in plants

Chitin

Exoskeleton in insects and crustaceans

Starch

Plants store excess glucose as starch in either roots or stems

Animals vs. Plants lipid storage

Animals store energy as fats, whilst plants store energy as oils

Lipid vs. Polysaccharides

Lipids are much more dense and store twice as much energy as polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are more accessible, hence act as short-term storage rather than long-term

Origin of chemical energy

Ultimately comes from the light energy emitted by the Sun

5 Limiting Factors of Photosynthesis

Light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, availability of water, temperature, chlorophyll

Glycosis

First stage of aerobic respiration. Partial breakdown of glucose molecule. Oxygen independent and occurs in the cytoplasm

Kreb's cycle

Second stage of aerobic. Complete breakdown of glucose molecules. Oxygen dependent and occurs in the mitochondria

Fermentation

An anaerobic alternative to aerobic respiration. Equivalent to glycosis

Anaerobic vs. Aerobic respiration

Much more energy is released in aerobic respiration as the glucose is completely broken down.

Energy is required for...

Growth, repair, reproduction and movement