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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the parts of the Neuron?
Soma- cell body- Dendrites- Axon
What is the role of the Dendrites?
receive information from other neurons
What is the Role of the axon?
Send information to other neurons
What is the axon hillock?
The place where the axon connects to the cell body
What is the myelin sheath?
Covering substance of a neuron - causes neurve impulse to travel rapidly down a neuron.
What are the nodes of ranvier?
Gaps in the myelin on axon
What is an action potential?
Neurons communicate via a membrane excitability process known as an action potential or nerve impulse
Where are incoming signals from other neurons held?
The axon hillock
What is propagation?
Movement of an action potential along an axon after stimulation of membrane potential
What is saltatory conduction?
Rapid conduction of an action potential
What are telodendria?
One of several filaments of an axon at it's terminal point
What is the Bouton?
Also called the synaptic knob - distal end of each filament and holds the vesicles filled with neurotransmitter
What is neurotransmitter?
Flow of this substance converts the electrical signal into a chemical one
What is the Synapse?
Also called the Synaptic Cleft - the gap between two neurons
What is the presynaptic membrane?
Cell membrane of the sending axon
What is the postsynaptic membrane?
Cell membrane (usually dendrite) receiving the coded message
What is synaptic potential?
The composition of the chemical signal and it's binding to the postsynaptic membrane determines whether the information serves to depolarize or hyperpolarize the postsynaptic membrane
What are graded potentials?
brief local changes in membrane potential that occur in neuronal dendrites and cell bodies
In graded potential- what determines the amplitude representing change in membrane potential?
The amplitude is directly proportional to stimulus- the larger the stimulus the greater the amplitude
What is the purpose of a graded potential?
Drive the axon hillock to threshold membrane potential so that an action potential is generated
What is threshold on a neuron?
A membrane potential at the axon hillock (trigger zone) at which action potentials become self-propagating (self-generating)
What is a local process?
A single input potential that is insufficent to produce an action potential
What is summation of potentials?
Numerous local potentials collected at the axon hillock which will sufficiently produce an action potential.
What is the all-or-non principle?
Neurons are sufficiently stimulated to produce and action potential or not stimulated enough - no partial firing.
What is resting potential?
When at rest- the membrane is -65mV
What is the charge outside of the neuron?
What is the charge inside of the neuron body?
What regulates the balance of charges inside and outside the cell
Sodium potassium pump
What causes depolarization?
Reduction in the negative charge inside the neuron by flow of positivly charged ions such as Na (sodium)
What is hyperpolarization?
increase in the negative charge inside the neuron by flow of positively charged ions like potassium outside of the neuron (efflux) or flow of negatively charged ions inside the neuron (influx)
What are Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
A depolarized graded potential that drives the membrane potential towards the threshold and excited the neuron
What are Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials? (IPSP)
A hyperpolarized graded potential that drives the membrane potential AWAY from threshold and inhibits the neuron
What is the absolute refractory period?
Time while the action potential is occuring when the neuron cannot respond to another stimulus no matter how great the stimulus is.
What is the relative refractory period?
Time after the action potential has occurred when the neuron experience increased excitability and fewer inputs are needed to make the neuron fire again.
What causes the EEG signal?
Recording of cortically summated excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials of pyramidal cells oriented at right angels to the plane of the scalp surface.