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37 Cards in this Set

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What do professionals use to assess whether persons are intellectually/developmentally disabled?
By assessing intelligence and adaptive skills through IQ tests, WISC-IV, and adaptive skills assessment. They prefer individually administered tests to group ones. One way to get IQ is to divide mental age by chronological age and multiply by 100.
What are the reasons for job failure by the intellectually disabled?
The cause usually involves behaviors related to job responsibility and social skills more than job performance. Such things as attendance, initiative, responding to criticism, and interacting socially with coworkers and supervisors.
What is the general focus of educational programs for the intellectually disabled?
Inclusion & useful skills
Self determination
Functional academics

It varies according to the degree of the student's intellectual disability or how much support the student requires.

Important to have a merger of functional and academic skills.
What is a motivational term referring to a condition in which a person believes that no matter who hard he or she tires, failure will result?
learned helplessness
What is a place, usually a group home, in an urban or residential neighborhood where about three to ten adults with intellectual disabilities live under supervision?
Community residential facility
What is teaching that involves instructional prompts, consequences for performance, and transfer of stimulus control; often used with students with intellectual disabilities?
Systematic Instruction
What is the definition of intellectual disability?
Limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior beginning before age 18. These limitations are evident in thinking, social, and practical living skills.
What is another term for placing students in real life settings in order to teach them functional skills?
in-vivo instruction
What are the classifications and corresponding levels of support for individuals with an intellectual disability?
mild (50-70) - intermittent (largest group)
moderate (35-30) - limited (self-care, daily needs, min academ skill)
severe (20-35) - extensive (close support/res facil)
profound (>20) - pervasive (baby for life)
What intellectual disabilities can be the result of pre-natal problems?
Down Syndrome, Fragile X, Prader-Willi, PKU, Williams
What two main tools are used to assess an intellectual disability?
IQ tests and adaptive behavior measures
How is the progress of an intellectually disabled student monitored? (What methods are used?)
curriculum based measurement
adaptive behavior assessment done through interviews, observations and self report techniques since standardized tests don't lend themselves well to progress monitoring
What determines the focus of the transition plan for the intellectually disabled?
It should be self-determination/person-centered and focus on community adjustment (community residential facility or supported living) and employment (sheltered workshops vs. supported competitive employment).
What is the comparison of student profiles?
Inter-individual variation
What is the view of the individual student profile?
intra-individual variation
What is the most prevalent cause of LD?
neurological dysfunction
Why is it necessary to program for an LD child's transition to adulthood?
Mostly because they will not outgrow LD so they still will need assistance.
What are the four major educational approaches to alleviating the academic problems of individuals with learning disabilities?
cognitive training (process information)
content enhancement (make things interesting)
direct instruction (analyze task & put into steps)
peer tutoring (students teaching others)
What does F.A.T. stand for?
frustration, anxiety, tension
What does Richard Lavoie see as the most valuable gift you can give to the LD student?
What is the definition of LD and how can it be manifested in students?
Severe difficulty in some aspect of learning - listening, speaking, reading, writing, spelling, math, reasoning, etc.
What is the current federally approved method used to identify students who may have a learning disability?
response to intervention - multi-tiered model of prevention focused on early elementary grades, specifically in reading
What are characteristics that students with LD may exhibit?
Problems with academics, perception, add/adhd, memory, cognition and metacognition, social/emotional behavior
How is the progress of the learning disabled student monitored?
Curriculum based measurement (test what's taught)
informal assessment (Informal reading inventory)
What do authorities currently believe is the primary cause of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity?
neurological abnormalities/dysfunction
Under which IDEA category do students with ADHD receive special education services?
"other health impaired" - it does not have its own category
How do we assess for ADHD?
Medical Exam
Clinical Interview
Rating Scale (18 pt)
Behavioral Observations

(only an MD can diagnose)
What is the most prescribed psycho-stimulant for ADHD and what are the precautions that should be taken?
methylphenidate (ritalin) - should only be prescribed after careful analysis, not sure it will take care of all academic problems, monitor dosage, not a substitute for self-initiative, teachers still need to take responsibility, keep up communication
What is the best service delivery or placement for ADHD students and where are positive behavioral changes likely to occur (what service delivery location - classroom type)
Good educational considerations include a highly structured classroom
distraction free environment
clearly defined expectations
variety in presentation

Also includes
functional behavioral assessment and contingency based self management

Best placement is a regular ed classroom.
What is a technique whereby a friend or therapist offers encouragement and support for a person with ADHD?
coaching - they provide structure needed to plan upcoming events and activities and heaps on praise when tasks are accomplished - ultimately they will be able to hold down a normal job
What factors make it difficult to define emotional/behavioral problems?
difficult to define mental health/normal
varying conceptual models
emotions and behavior are immeasurable
overlap between disabilities
differences among professionals
Identify and differentiate between the two, broad, pervasive dimensions of disordered behavior.
Externalizing - acting out behavior; aggressive or disruptive behavior that is observable as behavior directed toward others.

Internalizing - acting-in behavior; anxiety, fearfulness, withdrawal, and other indications of an individual's mood or internal state.
Why do professionals believe children with emotional/behavioral disorders are presently underserved?
6-10 percent exhibit disorder but only 1 percent receiving services
What school practices may contribue to the development of emotional/behavioral disorders?
too lax
pay too much attention to misbeahvior
What are the family causal factors that could contribute to E/BD?
baby with a difficult temperment
substance abuse
What is co-morbidity?
Co-occurrence of two or more conditions in the same individual.
What is a disorder characterized by overt, aggressive, disruptive behavior or covert antisocial acts such as stealing, lying, and fire setting; may include both overt and covert acts?
Conduct Disorder