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83 Cards in this Set

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What do a red line or solid black line represent on a drawing?
drains
What do a green line or dotted black line represent on a drawing?
vents
What do a blue line or solid black line with "RWL" beside it represent?
RWL (rain water leader)
What is the purpose of a trap?
A trap prevents sewer gas and vermin from getting into your house.
What type of trap is this?
What type of trap is this?
P-trap
What type of traps are these?
What type of traps are these?
S-traps
What is the proper height for stub-outs for laundry sinks?
12"
What is the proper height for the stub-outs for lavs and basins?
18"
What is the proper height for the stub-outs for kitchen sinks?
12"
What are the 8 ways you can lose trap seal?
1. Indirect siphonage
2. Direct siphonage
3. Back pressure
4. Evaporation
5. Leakage
6. Oscillation
7. Capillary action
8. Breakage
What is indirect siphonage?
When fixtures/traps are tied in together in such a way that one P-trap drains water from the other.
When fixtures/traps are tied in together in such a way that one P-trap drains water from the other.
What is direct siphonage?
When a drain is not vented, or when it is piped so that an S-trap is created.
When a drain is not vented, or when it is piped so that an S-trap is created.
What is back pressure? What is one example of back pressure manifesting? How can it be avoided?
I'm not really sure. But one example is phantom flushing. You can avoid it by not making connections too close to the base of a stack.
What is evaporation? How can it be prevented?
Trap seal is made with water, and water evaporates! Losing trap seal can be avoided by finding ways to add water to any trap that does not otherwise see water on a regular basis. This is called "priming"!
What traps need to be primed?
All of them!
What is the best way to prime the kitchen sink?
the kitchen tap
What is the best way to prime the shower?
using the shower
How can you prime a trap that does not see regular water?
Install a trap seal primer that will allow clean water to trickle into the trap. Sources include toilet, laundry faucet, and high-efficiency furnace (creates condensation).
What is leakage? How can you identify it? Where will you most likely see it?
Leakage is when water leaks out of the trap. It can often be identified by the appearance of stains. Sink traps are required to be designed so that they can be removed, so check there. Tub drains have to be glued in order to avoid leakage.
What is oscillation? What causes it? What are two good ways to avoid it?
Oscillation is when water sloshes bit by bit out of the trap. It is caused by extreme variations of atmospheric pressure, such as when wind blows across the terminal and bounces the traps. It can be avoided by making sure the stack terminal is not even with the peak of the roof or other roof lines. Set the terminal for 8" above or below. In addition, take weather patterns of the area into consideration.
What is capillary action?
Capillary action is when debris running from the trap over the weir draws water out of the trap and down the drain. It is like what happens if you run a string from a glass of water.
What is breakage? When does it especially tend to occur? How is it diagnosed?
This is when pipes break. This happens especially with new construction. You diagnose it using snakes with cameras.
What consideration must be made for vent terminals in rural areas? What can you do about it?
They can sometimes draw gas and odour off of the septic tank. If this happens, increase stack height.
How many degrees are in a 1/4 bend fitting?
90º
90º
How many degrees are in a 1/8 bend fitting?
45º
45º
What kind of fitting is this?
TY
TY
What kind of fitting is this?
Y
Y
What fitting should you use for a vertical to horizontal drain connection? Why?
Y only! Using a TY in this case is illegal, because the waste hits it and travels both ways and can back up the drain. Using a Y directs the waste in one direction only.
Y only! Using a TY in this case is illegal, because the waste hits it and travels both ways and can back up the drain. Using a Y directs the waste in one direction only.
What fitting should you use for a horizontal to vertical drain connection? Why?
You are allowed to use a TY in this case (as shown in this image), but a Y is still better since it directs the flow better.
You are allowed to use a TY in this case (as shown in this image), but a Y is still better since it directs the flow better.
What are the 2 purposes of venting?
1. Get rid of sewer gas
2. Maintain atmospheric pressure in the system (14.7 psi)
What is a system vent?
Vent pipes and drains connected from the sewer out through the roof.
What is a fixture vent?
A vent that protects the trap of a fixture.
What part is this?
What part is this?
crown
What part is this?
What part is this?
weir
What part is this?
What part is this?
dip
What is this part?
What part is this?
trap arm
What is trap seal depth defined as?
The distance between the weir and the dip
What is the minimum trap seal depth?
38mm / 1½"
What is the desired slope of drain pipes?
1/4" per foot
What is the maximum trap arm fall from weir to vent? Why?
Trap arm fall from weir to vent distance should not exceed pipe diameter, because otherwise you risk creating an S-trap.
What is the maximum change of direction (in degrees) permitted from trap to vent? Why?
135º; otherwise you will slow the flow too much.
What is the minimum depth of trap seal water?
38mm / 1½"
What is the minimum distance of vent from weir?
2 pipe diameters
What is the maximum change of direction from toilet to vent? Why?
225º, because the S-trap design discharges water at much greater velocity.
What are the 3 P-Trap regulations?
1. Vent must be 2 pipe diameters or more away from weir
2. Trap arm drop must be less than pipe diameter
3. Less than 135º change of direction from weir to vent
What is the maximum distance from vent to toilet, and in what directions?
Up to 4m away: 3m horizontally; 1m vertically
What is the purpose of toilet venting?
To prevent indirect siphonage
How many degrees above horizontal plane should vent pipes be installed?
above approximately 45º
What are the two vent types?
1. Continuous waste and vent
2. Back vent
What type of vent is this?
What type of vent is this?
Continuous waste and vent
What type of vent is the one on the right?
What type of vent is the one on the right?
Back vent
Which is better, a continuous waste & vent, or a back vent? Why?
Continuous waste and vent is better, because water can't back up in it.
What is one important tip for installing back vents?
Install as far from trap as possible, so that water is less likely to back up in it.
What is the ideal velocity of pipe contents, whether in residential or city sewer?
2 feet per second
How do you know the height for tying two vents together?
They must tie above the height of the highest fixture / they must vent above the flood level of all of the fixtures you're tying into
Why would you need to tear into the first-floor wall to install a basement washroom?
Tie-in to vents must be above first-floor fixtures.
When should you run a future vent?
Always! It's code.
Where can you usually find future vents?
9/10 of the time they are piped off of kitchen vent
What important considerations must be made around DWV piping in a new log house?
Vertical pipes with horizontal pipes coming off should have expansion joints. Pipes will shatter otherwise.
How much energy does hydronics save?
30%
How much energy does geothermal save?
70%
When should you use 45s and 90s with PEX? Why?
Never! Run one single pipe from end to end. Fittings decrease water flow & pressure!
What precaution is taken to prevent effects of hoar frost?
Vent pipe coming out of roof should be 3"
How far do vent terminals need to be from air intakes, windows, etc.?
3.5m across or 1m above
What kind of protection from rain is necessary for vent systems?
Rain guards are only installed at schools. We want rain water to flush out vents!
What do you use to seal the toilet to the flange? How do you install it?
Wax ring. Install by turning toilet upside-down and molding wax to toilet by hand.
Wax ring. Install by turning toilet upside-down and molding wax to toilet by hand.
What type of wax seal does Warren prefer, and why?
Deep horn wax seal, which you put on floor flange first, not toilet.
Deep horn wax seal, which you put on floor flange first, not toilet.
Do you install the toilet flange flush with the floor?
Flange should be flush with the finished floor. If the floor is still going to be tiled, you should shim the flange so that the tile can come underneath it. Otherwise the toilet will not sit right.
What do you do if you installed the flange flush and the floor then got tiled?
Use 2 wax seals (one deep horn and one regular). Don't tell the inspector.
What is the proper placement for the flange?
13" from back wall; 17" from side wall
What is the advantage of installing a floor flange with a test plate in both new construction and renos?
In new construction it is good because you have to do a pressure test. In renos it is good because it protects you from sewer gas.
What screws should be used to set the flange?
1½" #12 or #14
What are 2 reasons not to silicone a toilet base down?
1. You will never get the silicone off the floor
2. If the flange starts to leak, you won't know about it until the water rots out the subfloor and things are really bad.
What type of waste and overflow is this?
What type of waste and overflow is this?
direct waste and overflow
direct waste and overflow
What type of waste and overflow is this?
What type of waste and overflow is this?
offset waste and overflow
offset waste and overflow
How do you know whether to use direct or offset waste and overflow?
Depends on where the floor joists are
What are the steps for framing a tub?
1. Put tub into place
2. Use 4' level to level tub on all 3 sides
3. Trace along studs with a pencil to mark edge of tub lip
4. Remove tub and install 2x4 pieces along those marks (keep nails halfway out)
5. Check 2x4 pieces for level
6. Install tub and clips
7. Drywall goes down over lip
What should you be sure to silicone on a shower?
Shower head hole and Overflow fitting
What is the downside of nice-looking sink plugs?
they restrict the flow of water!
How big are most shower drains? Why?
2". This is because some traps are 1.5" and some are 2" (required for >2 shower heads)
How big is the building drain?
4"
4"
How big is the main stack?
3"
3"
With horizontal pipe, how big does the pipe need to be after the 3rd toilet?
4"