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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Most fungi of medical importance are...
saprobes or organisms that live on decaying organic matter in nature and do not require a parasitic existence in man or animals to survive.
Are fungi Gm+ or Gm-?
cell membranes of fungi contain what molecule, instead of cholesterol?
Most fungi exist in what morphological form in nature?
hyphal form, in which they are molds, ie. consisting of branching, threadlike, tubular filaments which are collectively called mycelium.
The two morphologic forms of fungi are what?
1. hyphal form

2. yeast cell form
diseases caused by fungi are called...
Mycoses (diseases caused by fungi) can be classified according to the primary site of infection. These categories are:
1) superficial – limited to the outermost layers of the skin or hair

2) cutaneous – extend deeper into the epidermis, as well as hair or nails

3) subcutaneous – enter tissue by traumatic implantation and involve the dermis, subcutaneous tissues, muscles or fascia

4) systemic – arise from exogenous sources through inhalation of reproductive bodies of saprobic fungi and establish an initial infection in the lungs. Afterwards they may enter the blood to disseminate to other regions of the body.

5) opportunistic in which the pathogens affect only or mainly debilitated or immunosupressed hosts.
The infectious form of most exogenous fungi which cause systemic or opportunistic infections is what?
Infectious bodies of molds are of what two forms?
1. conidia: spores which are present on stalk-like projections or other structures

2. arthroconidia: septal fragments of the hyphae which separate to become reproductive entities
Topical miconazole is often effective against superficial mycoses along with other chemicals that...
lyse keratin
Cutaneous Mycoses may elicit a ______ _______ reaction
delayed hypersensitivity
tinea is used to describe what?
Lesions caused by Cutaneous Mycoses

1) tinea capitis (scalp)

2) tinea pedis (feet; athletes foot)

3) tinea manus (hands)

4) tinea unguium (nails)

5) tinea corporis (body)

6) tinea cruris (jock itch).
“ringworm” is caused by
Cutaneous Mycoses
Common subcutaneous mycoses include:
lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis
Primary fungal pathogens that can cause systemic infections include:
> Histoplasma capsulatum

> Blastomyces dermatitidis

>Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

> Coccidioides immitis

>Cryptococcus neoformans
Why does human to human, or animal to human transmission not usually occur in systemic mycoses?
reproductive bodies of the hyphal state (conidia or arthrospores) and not yeasts, constitute the infective bodies of systemic pathogens
Histoplasmosis is more commonly known as what?
“cave disease” or “spelunker’s disease”
What pathogen is responsible for Histoplasmosis?
Histoplasma capsulatum

Symptoms include flu-, or pneumonia-like symptoms, but after weeks or months, tuberculosis-like lesions appear which may become calcified and visible on chest x-rays. The pathogen remains viable in macrophages which serve as vectors in disseminated disease resulting in formation of granulomas in various organs.
Blastomyces dermatitidis is the organism responsible for causing...
Blastomycosis is also known as what?
“Chicago disease” or “Gilchrist’s disease”

Primary infection of lungs. Calcifications in the lungs, however, do not occur.
Paracoccidioidomycosis is more common in what gender?
The disease chiefly affects men (78:1 ratio, men to women) due possibly to the inhibitory action of estrogen on the hypha to yeast transition.
“desert rheumatism” and “San Joaquin Valley fever” are names for what disease?
Coccidioidomycosis is caused by what fungi?
Coccidioides immitis
The pathogen of cryptococcosis is...
Cryptococcus neoforman, which is found in desiccated droppings of pigeons
A characteristic feature of this organisms is that it exists only in the yeast form.
Cryptococcus neoforman
the major causative agent of aspergillosis is...
Aspergillus fumigatus
mycetomas or “fungus balls are associated with what disease?
This extracellular protein elaborated by A. flavus (in most cases), can contaminate foodstuff, such as peanuts, and may induce hepatocellular carcinoma.
It is the most common opportunistic respiratory infection in late stage HIV patients and accounts for a 10-20% mortality rate in these individuals
Pneumocystis jirveci pneumonia
______ in fungal cell membranes are the targets of antifungal drugs
What are Polyenes?
drugs which impair sterols
Drugs which affect biosynthesis of sterols are called?
Azole derivatives
This agent is a Nucleoside analog, and when it is taken up by fungus, it's converted to 5-fluorouracil and then metabolized into compounds which are inhibitory to either RNA or DNA function.
This agent is active against dermatophytes, but not against Candida albicans or pathogens causing systemic mycoses.
What does the drug caspofungin do?
interfers with cell wall synthesis of fungi.