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180 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The world leader in both the obesity endemic and the diabetes epidemic is:
United States
The term "male menopause" is sometimes used to refer to:
a dip in testosterone in response to anxiety or sexual inactivity
The use of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection in a typical IVF cycle is especially useful when
a man is HIV-positive and a woman is HIV-negative
A woman in the United States today is most likely to die from which type of cancer?
Laboratory-induced twinning is an assisted reproductive technology method that is
Prohibited in all nations
At a recent physical exam, Janet was told that she is an inch shorter than she was five years ago at age 50. What could cause her decrease in height?
A natural collapse of vertebrae in the spine
Harry is 65 years old and can hear well enough to understand a whisper spoken three feet away. In a sample of 65-year-old men, Harry would be:
About average
Schaie's study of Americans born over a 77-year-period found that each successive cohort scored higher in:
Verbal meaning and inductive reasoning
When Bayley tested a group of adults who had been child geniuses, she found:
Scores increased between ages 20 and 50
According to Gardner, each of the eight intelligences that he identified is based on:
its own neurological network in a certain section of the brain
Creative intelligence requires ______ thinking.
Randy moved across the country to advance his career. Though he moved alone, he soon developed a group of co-workers and friends who became like a family to him. They served as his:
social convoy
The percentage of residents over the age of 65 in the United States who have never been married is:
Bill has worked at a low-paying job in a lumber yard for many years. In comparison to his cousin who is a physician, Bill expects to retire:
5 years sooner than his cousin
The percentage of adults who are close to their siblings increases from adolescence to adulthood by approximately:
According to research by Levinson, the period of adult life which is characterized by anxiety, reexamination and sudden transformation is referred to as the:
Midlife transition stage
Which most accurately depicts researchers' current views on the midlife crisis?
Believing in its existence may help middle-aged adults cope with the changes that occur
When our present population is sorted according to age, the resulting graph is approaching a demographic:
Taking aspirin regularly, as many of the elderly do, increases the need for:
Vitamin C
What percent of the United States population is over age 65?
The term "free radicals" refers to:
Electrons that are unattached to their nuclei
Which of the following types of events are remembered best by older adults?
happy events that occurred between the ages of 10 and 30
Which component of the human information-processing system functions as executive?
Control processes
In Schaie's Seattle Longitudinal Study, the cognitive decline of late adulthood was most evident in which of the following?
Processing speed
Many elderly people suffering from depression do not receive treatment because:
Their depression goes undiagnosed
Autopsies show the brains of Alzheimer's victims
Have a large number of plaques and tangles
Example of a subcortical dementia?
Parkinsons Disease
The main symptom in Lewy body dementia is:
Loss of inhibition
Loss of working memory is particularly likely to affect the ability to:
Repeat a series of numbers just heard
What theory claims that social forces limit individual choice and direct life, especially in late adulthood?
Stratification theories
Elderly men may be more troubled by losing a spouse than elderly women are because men
Are less likely to seek out comfort and help
Polly effusively describes her youth and earlier adulthood as "perfect," having had many wonderful experiences, a loving family, and good friends. She is demonstrating:
The positivity effect
Continuity theory would argue that the reaction of a 70-year-old to the news that he has diabetes and must dramatically change his lifestyle is best predicted by the patient's:
Past coping patterns
Erikson called the final crisis of development:
Integrity vs. despair
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the percentage of those over the age of 65 who are still in the work force is:
20% of men and 15% of women
Much of the volunteer work undertaken by the elderly is:
Gradual physical decline that occurs with age
Loss of hearing associated with senescence
With age, neurons in the brain fire more ___, and there are fewer
neurons and synapses
People who abuse alcohol over decades risk the disease called...
Korsakoff's syndrome
Ovulation and menstruation stop
Production of sex hormones drops considerably
Quality adjusted life years
How many years of full vitality are lost as a result of a particular disease or disability
Mortality is usually expressed as
The number of deaths each year per 1,000 individuals in a particular population
___% of all adults in the US are obese
The first visible age-related changes are seen in the...
The major reason for infertility among US couples is...
Postponing childbearing until they are well past their peak reproductive years
The term "male menopause" was probably coined to refer to...
the sudden dip in testosterone that sometimes occurs in men who have been sexually inactive
The leading cause of cancer deaths in North America is...
Lung cancer
Sexual expressiveness during adulthood
Levels of sex hormones gradually diminish and responses slow down
Disease of all kinds
More important to quality of life than any other measure of health
Female fertility may be affected by...
Anorexia, pelvic inflammatory disease, smoking
At every age, women are more likely than men to have nearly every...
chronic disease
Country with lowest annual mortality
Disability-adjusted life years
The reciprocal of QALYs, a measure of the impact that disability has on quality of life
Historically, psychologists have thought of intelligence as a...
Single entity
Spearman argued that there is such a thing as __, which he called __
General intelligence
Cross sectional research designs show intelligence
Decreasing with age
Longitudinal research designs show intelligence
Increasing with age
Reasons longitudinal findings may be misleading
1. People restested may improve as a result of practice
2. Drop-outs lead to a self-selected sample
3. Takes a long time
Fluid intelligence
Flexible reasoning used to draw inferences and understand relations between concepts
Inductive reasoning, abstract analysis, working memory
Crystallized intelligence
Accumulation of facts, information and knowledge that comes with education and experience
Sternberg's 3 aspects of intelligence
Analytic, Creative and Practical
Analytic intelligence
Mental processes that foster academic proficiency, by making efficient learning possible
Creative intelligence
Flexible and innovative
New solutions
Practical intelligence
Adapt to contextual demands of a given situation
Selective optimization with compensation
People devise alternative strategies to compensate for age-related declines in ability
Rely on past experience and context more than forman procedures
Automatic and instinctive
More and better strategies
Flexible and creative
The shift from conscious, deliberate processing of information to a more unconscious, effortless performance requires...
Automatic responding
Selective expert
Specializes in activities that are more personally meaningful
Age cognitively impairs...
Processing speed and short-term memory
Erikson crisis of early adulthood
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Eriskon crisis of middle adulthood
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Social clock
Timetable for behaviors set by social norms
The stability of personality results in large part from the fact that beginning in early adulthood most people have settled into an...
Ecological niche
The psychoanalyst who believed that everyone has both a masculine and a feminine side;
Adults begin to explore the shadow side of their personalities
Social convoy
The group of people with whom we form relationships that guide us through life
Allostatic load
The total burden of stress and disease that an individual must cope with
Problem focused coping
People try to cope with stress by tackling the problem directly
Emotion focused coping
People cope with stress by trying to change their emotions
The belief that family members should care for and support one another
Fictive kin
Someone who becomes accepted as part of a family to which he or she is unrelated
Maintain links between generations
Shifts in personality during adulthood often reflect
Increased agreeableness, conscientiousness and generativity
Younger adults tend to be more __ focused when responding to stress
problem, not emotion
Gender convergence
Tendency of the sexes to become more similar as women and men age
Linked lives
Family members tend to share all aspects of each other's lives
Multidisciplinary study of aging
Medical specialty devoted to aging
Dependency Ratio
Ratio of self-sufficient, productive adults to dependent children and elderly adults
Other terms for young-old, old-old and oldest-old
Optimal, usual and impaired aging
Thickening of the lens of the eye
Hardening of the eyeball because of a buildup of fluid within the eye
Macular degeneration
Deterioration of the retina
Compression of morbidity
Limiting of the time any person spends ill
3 Theories of aging
Wear and Tear
Wear and tear theory
Compared the human body to a machine
Each body has a certain amount of energy and strength to use
Average life expectancy
75 for men, 81 for women
Epigenetic theory of aging
Reproduction is what drives evolution
Cellular theory of aging
Mutations during cell reproduction causes aging
Oxygen free radicals produce errors in cell maintenance and repair
B cells
From bone marrow
Create antibodies that attack invading bacteria and viruses
T cells
From thymus gland
Produce substances that attack any kind of infected cell
Over the course of adulthood, the power, production and efficiency of T and B cells...
Hayflick limit
Cells stop replicating at a certain point
3 places famous for long-lived people
Georgia, Pakistan and Ecuador
Demographic pyramid is becoming a square because of
Decreasing birth rates and increasing life spans
Primary aging
Irreversible changes that occur with time
According to the genetic adaptation theory of a genetic clock...
Aging is actually directed by the genes
As a result of the ___ birth rate, the population dependency ration in most industrialized countries is ___ than it was at the turn of the 20th century
Each time a cell duplicates...
The telomere is shortened
In humans, average life expectancy varies according to...
historical, cultural and socioeconomic factors
Not ethnic factors
Older adults are particularly likely to experience difficulty in multitasking, because...
It requires screening out distractions and inhibiting irrelevant thoughts
Dual track deficit
The difficulty older adults have in multitasking
Control processes of the information processing system
Storage mechanisms
Retrieval strategies
Selective attention
Logical analysis
While thinking, older adults are more likely to rely on...
Prior knowledge, general principles, familiarity and rules of thumb
Reasons behind the slowdown in brain processes
Reduced production of neurotransmitters
less volume of neural fluid
Slower speed of cerebral blood flow
Smaller prefrontal cortex
Terminal decline
Overall slowdown of cognitive abilities that often occurs in the days or months before death
Severely impaired judgement, memory or problem solving ability
Alzheimers Disease
Abnormalities in the cerebral cortex called plaques and tangles
Plaques are formed from a protein called
Tangles are twisted masses of threads made of a protein called...
Plaques and tangles usually begin in the ___ of the brain
1st stage of Alzheimer's
Absentmindedness about recent events
2nd stage of Alzheimer's
Deficits in concentration and short-term memory
Changes in personality
3rd stage of Alzheimer's
Memory loss becomes dangerous and debilitating
Can no longer manage basic needs
4th stage of Alzheimer's
Require full time care
5th stage of Alzheimer's
No longer talk or respond
Vascular dementia
Temporary obstruction of the blood vessels called an infarct, prevents sufficient blood from reaching the brain
Unlike Alzheimer's, VaD shows...
A sudden drop in intellectual functioning
Subcortical dementias
Originates in brain areas that do not directly involve thinking and memory
Progressive loss of motor control
Most common subcortical dementia
Parkinsons is related to the degeneration of neurons that produce the neurotransmitter...
Main symptom of Lewy body is a loss of...
Reversible dementia can be caused by...
Overmedication, inadequate nutrition, alcohol abuse, depression or other mental illness
Suicide is higher for those over age __ than for any other group
The two basic functions of working memory are
Storage that enables conscious use and processing of information
Strategies to retain and retrieve information in the knowledge base are part of which basic component of information processing?
Control processes
The plaques and tangles that accompany Alzheimer's disease usually begin in the...
Secondary aging factors that may explain some declines in cognitive functioning include...
Fewer opportunities for learning in old age
Disparaging self-perceptions of cognitive abilities
Difficulty with traditional methods of measuring cognitive functioning
Medication has been associated with symptoms of dementia because...
Standard drug dosages are often too strong for the elderly;
Drugs sometimes have the side effect of slowing mental processes;
The intermixing of drugs can sometimes have detrimental effects on cognitive functioning
The primary purpose of the life review
Put one's life into perspective
Reduced sensory input impairs cognition by increasing the power of...
Which type of memory is most vulnerable to age-related deficits?
Explicit memory
The psychological illness most likely to be misdiagnosed as dementia is...
Working memory
Temporarily stores information for conscious processing
Multi-Infarct Dementia (MID)
Caused by a temporary obstruction of the blood vessels
A patient has the following symptoms: blurred vision, slurred speech and mental confusion. The patient is probably suffering from:
Vascular Dementia
From 65 to 85, the incidence of Alzheimers disease rises from 1 in 100 to...`
1 in 5
Use of a clue, or some other form of preparation, to jog one's memory
Expert knowledge in the fundamental pragmatics of life
3 types of theories of psychosocial development in late adulthood
Self theories
Stratification theories
Dynamic theories
Self theories
Theories that emphasize the active part that individuals play in their own psychosocial development;
Attempts to self-actualize
Integrity v. despair
New experiences are incorporated into identity unchanged
Distorts reality in order to maintain self esteem
Leads to rigidity
People adapt to new experiences by changing their self-concept
Can lead people to abandon their identity
Selective optimization with compensation
Individuals set their own goals, assess their own abilities, and then figure out how to accomplish what they want to achieve despite the limitations and declines of later life
Positivity effect
Tendency of elderly people to perceive, prefer and remember positive experiences more than negative ones
Stratification theories
Social forces and cultural influences limit individuals and direct life at every stage
Age stratification
Industrialized nations segregate the oldest generation
Disengagement theory
In old age the individual and society mutually withdraw from each other
Activity theory
Older adults remain socially active
Instead of disengagement or activity theory, older adults may become more ___ in their social contacts
Feminist stratification theory
Social policies and cultural values make later life particularly burdensome for women
Critical race theory (stratification)
Race is a social construct and racism and racial discrimination shape the experiences and attitudes of both racial minorities and majorities
Dynamic theory
Each person's life is an active, changing, self-propelled process occurring within ever-changing social contexts
Continuity theory
People experience the changes of late adulthood in much the same way they did earlier in life
Rather than moving, many elderly people prefer to remain in the neighborhoods in which they raised their children, creating...
Naturally occurring retirement communities
The death of a mate usually means lower...
status, income, activities, identity
Beanpole family
More generations, but only a few members in each generation
Filial responsibility
Idea that adult children are obligated to care for their aging parents
3 types of grandparents
Remote, involved, companionate
5 Activities of daily life
Eating, bathing, toileting, dressing, transferring from a bed to a chair
Instrumental activities of daily life
Shopping, paying bills, driving a car, taking medications, keeping appointments
Developmentalists who believe that stratification theory unfairly stigmatizes women and minority groups point out that:
African Americans often outlive European Americans;
Elderly women are less likely than men to be lonely and depressed;
Multigenerational families and churches often nurture Hispanic Americans
3 factors contributing to an increase in the number of frail elderly
People are living longer;
Medical care's focus on preventing death rather than enhancing life;
Those who are already somewhat frail tend to be excluded from receiving help
How healthy and energetic an individual feels
Seattle Longitudinal Study
1st cross-sequential study of intelligence
Expert Cognition
Irregular shape of cornea
Lens of eye loses flexibility
Makes it difficult to focus
Not a disease and cannot be prevented
Progressive damage to optic nerve
More fluid is produced than can be removed by the eye