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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Core knowledge perspective
Born with innate special purpose knowledge systems. Core domains allow quick grasp of related information and support rapid early development.
Suggested domains of core knowledge
1. Physical
2. Linguistic
3. Psychological
4. Numerical
Infants numerical knowledge
Infants may be able to discriminate quantities up to three and also do simple arithmitic.
Information processing improvements
Attention-The ability to shift focus improves, they have less attraction to novelty, better sustained attention after the first year.
Memory-retention intervals lengthen, recall appears by first year; excellent in second year. Example little girl haven't seen in forever runs out and is excited to see you because she remmeners. BAbies can't do this.
Categorizaation-impressive perceptual categorization in first year, conceptual categorization in second year. They figure out things like squares are squares. The second year they can determine shoes go here balls go over there.
Vygotsky's Sociocultural theory
He says other people contribute to cognitive development. Also talks about the zone of proximal development.
Zone of proximal development
Part of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory. Tasks children cannot do alone but can learn with the help of more skilled partners. This is extremely important kids are authonomous. They want to dress himself and he goes in and comes out with a sweat shirt when it's 90 degrees outside. We have to help them.
Toddler infnat intelligence tests
Dependable but they give you an answer within limits. They're either within limits, above limits, or below limits. May be tested as a genious at age three but by age six most kids regress to the mean.
Developmentally appropriate day care
Adult-child interactions
Teachers must be qualified
Relationships with parents must be fostered.
liscensing and accreditation.
physical setting
group size
caregiver child ratio.
daily activities
Three theories of language development
1. behaviorist
2. nativist
3. interactionist
Behaviorist theory of language development
Learned through operant conditioning (reinforcement) and imitation.
Child says bed, they get to go to bed. They say cookie and receive a cookie. Also learned by imitation, dad says duesche so I say it and get into trouble. Skinner took this approach
Language acquisition device biologically prepares children to learn rules of language. Chovsky takes this view. They say that children are born to understand language. There's no way imitation and rienforcement can account for language development. You have language part in your brain which is coded to hear language.
Inner capacities and environment work together. Social context is important. They say have to have both genetics and reinforcement.
over extension
When a child thinks everybody's a girl or every man is their daddy.
Why is it so hard to learn a second language when you are an adult?
Because our brin is less plastic nuerons are less receptive. It's easier to learn first one because now you have to unlearn everything you've ever learned.
Telegraphic speech
two word phrases, me cookie. mommy mad
Language development is
phenomenal. It goes from incoherent babble to full sentences within six months to a year.
Getting ready to talk
First words typically end in ie or y. mommy, daddy, grammie, grampy, birdie, baby. Babies keep babbling they don't say anythig but they keep talking. By age 1 they can actively communicate. They learn to take turns talking they say simething and then wait for you to talk. But at 12 months they can only say 3-7 words but can recognize between 5-75 words.
Under extension
Nate has a cocker spaniel. His daughter knows a cocker spaniel is a dog. She goes next door and calls her neighbor's golden retriever something else because she only thinks dogs are cockker spaniels.
Psychosocial stages during infancy and toddlerhood
first year: basic trust versus mistrust need responsiveness from caregivers.
second year: autonomy vs. shame doubt need suitable guidance and reasonable choices.
What do children need in the basic trust vs. mistrust phase?
1 year they need responsiveness from caregivers. In infancy we must give children our attention. Alan sure says eye contact is also critical for the trust development. This gaze stimulates a babies orbital frontal cortex. This stimulates the brain to develop attachment. Persons who let their children cry don't have much eye contact because the babies eyes are closed when they are picked up.
What do children need in the autonomy vs. shame/doubt phase?
They need parents to give children guidance and support. Parents have to give them choices of ideas so they have power. Example give a child three choices of outfits so they will think they are making the choice.
First appearance of basic emotions
Smile from birth
Social smile 6-10 weeks
laugh: 3-4 months

General distress from birth
Anger 4-6 months

First fears : 2nd half of first year
Stranger anxiety 8-12 months
Stranger anxiety
develops at 8-12 months. Kids who used to be really friendly now become afraid of people. Example daughter had 10 months without seeing gpa who shaved beard was fearful because he looked different.
Understanding emotions of others
They are starting to understand emotions early on in infancy and can recognize facial expressions of others beginning around 4 months thish is when they start smiling back at you
Social referencing
Relying on others emotional reactions to appraise the situation. Caregivers teach children how to act. The baby can sense if he falls and you start to panic he will start to panic too. Whereas when he looks to you for reaction if you reamin calm and say oh brush it off he will be much calmer.
Self-conscious emotions
Emerge the middle of the second year. Children become aware of self as separate and unique. Children require instructions about when to feel emotions. Have to teach thme when to be embarassed and when to not be.
Emotional self regulation
Adjusting own state of emotional intensity. Toddlers are learning to handle emotions. They're learning to manage their temper. This requires effortful control and grows over first year with brain develioment.
Genetically influenced building blocks of personality.
REactivity as it relates to temperament
speed and intensity of emotional arousal, attentoon, and motor activity. Babies keep interest longer the older they get.
degree to which babies respond to their environment.
Friendly babies
like changes, adapt well. These are easy babies
Slow to warm up babies
If a baby is slow to warm up they are overly cautious. They kind of like you from watching the environment but they keep their distance.
Difficult children
Are unhappy and all over the house.
When does your temprament become realtively finalized?
At age three your temparment will be formed and stabalizing.
Thomas and Chess
Say temperament depends of the child's goodness of fit. Goodness of fit combines genetics and environment child rearing to match temperament.
Ethological theory of attachment
Clear-cut attachment
This is where separation anxiety develops
Types of attachment
Factors that affect attachment security
1. Opportunity for attachment.
2. Quality of caregiving
3. Infant characteristics
4. Family circumstances.
FAthers and attachments
FAthers are generally seen as playments while nmothers in many cultures are caregivers. Important factors in attachment are warmth, sensitivity, family attitueds and relationships.
Stages of self development
1. self awareness- from birth, aided by intermodel perception
2. Self-recogniton-Emerges in 2nd year. Helped by acting on environment and noticing effects.
3. Empathy- aided by self-awareness and self conscious emotions.
Categorical self
categorize self and others into social categories such as age, physical characteristics and good or bad.
Effortful control and what do you need to get it
deals with inhibiting impulses
managing negative emotions
and behaving acceptably
Children need
1. awareness of self as a separate and autonomous
2. Confience in directing own actions
3. Memory for instructions
Understanding and obeying caregivers wishes. Emerges between 12-18 months.
Toiddlers assert autonomy by sometimes not complying. Warm sensitive caregiving increases compliance.
Birth order does it have affects?
There are some effects but have to take other things into effect. For example if there's a HUGE age gap then is the second born the same as a first born you may be more like this first born.
Typicaly first borns
are more consciencious
rule-followers because they get to enforce the rules
more likely to be driven and achievement focused.
Leads to financial success.
Middle child
Have to work harder to keep up with their older siblings.
Peace maker- they say I guess we can go to MCDonalds instead.
Typically birth order characteristics of babies are:
Tend to let others do things for me.
Totally antisocial.
Attachment- quantity or quality
For secure attachment we need both quality and quantity. Have to have a variety of attachment so you aren't just attached to one person. First attachment is usuallyu connected to is mom ecause she feeds you and is literally connected to you.
What happens if a baby can't get attachment ?
If there's no parent a child will attach to other babies. Just because a baby can't get a secure attachment at birth doesn't mean they cannot securely attach later in life. Most us babies are securely attached.
Avoidant attachment
BAby doesn't like mom so she avoids mom at all possible costs.
Resistant attachment
Babies who are angry or clingly. They are so conflicted about what they want because caregivers sometimes respond correctly but sometimes don't.
Disorganized attachment
Babies who don't respond at all. No connection. No attachment at all.
Yes: What are the Gay numbers?
In 1976 there were 300,000-500,000 as of 1990, there were 6-14 million children who have gay or lesbian parents and over 8-10 million are being raised in gay and lesbian households.
Yes: What is the staus of homosexual parenting?
The most common type of homosexual household is a step or blended family. These are gay and lesbian parents who had their biological children in a former heterosexual relationship and then came out and created aonther family with another partner. Other types are single gay or lesbian parents and couples having children together. Both may be created through adoption or by reproductive technology.
Yes: What do they say about the effects of being raised by homosexual parents?
The effects cannot be predicted. The number of homosexuals who have adopted are unknown. Also because of the controversial nature their children are often reluctant to speak out.
What is sexual orientation?
The APA defines sexual orientation as "one of the four components of sexuality and is distinguished by an enduring emptional, romantic, sexual, or affectionate attraction to individuals of a particular gender.
Yes: Children will be molested by homosexual parents
There is no legitimate scientific research connecting homosexuality and pedophilla. In a study of 269 cases of child sex abuse, only two offenders were found to be gay or lesbian.
Yes: Children will be teased or harassed
GAy and lesbian parents are well aware of the difficulties that a child may face--many have dealt with prejudice all their life. Most see it as an oportunity for ano ongooing discussion which will help their children grow throughout their lives. One says their nine year old has become very adapt at knowing when to tell people she has two mommies.
Yes: What has the court case typically ruled in custody cases which involve a gay or lesbian parent?
Typically they consider the fact that a child may be teased as contrary to the best interest of the child. They argue having gay parents will hurt the child's self-esteem. This has been refuted in many studies. Research has found that although children of gays do experience teasing their self esteem is no lower then heterosexual counterparts.
Yes: Children raised in homosexual households will become gay
All evidence to date indicates that children raised by gays are no less likely to become homosexual than children raised by heterosexuals.
Yes: Children will develop problems growing up in an unnatural lifestyle
Many beliefve chidlre will have difficulties with their presonal and psychological development, self esteem, and social and peer relationships. Because of this concern, researchers have focused on children's development in gay/lesbo familes. Development is the same.
Yes: What the law says
Many states are beginning to allow same sex marriages and also same sex adoptions.
YEs: Problem with adoption from same sex couples perspective
Although some adoptions have been successful, the most common practice is for a single person to apply as the legal adoptive parent of the child. Couples who both want custody then apply for a second parent, or coparent, adoptoon. SEcond parent adoption leaves the parental rights of one legaly recognized parent in tact and creates a second parent for the adoptive children.
Yes: Public agency adoption
Success in adopting from the public child welfare system depends on the state adoption law and the attitude of the agency.
Yes: Private agency placements
Generally they establish their own criteria for the prospective adoptive parents. Age, religion, fertility status, marital status, and sexual orientation may all be considered.
YEs: Independent an dopen adoptions
An independent adoption is an adoption facilitated by thos other than case workers associated with an agency. They may be a physician, an attorney, or an intermediary and are ilegal in some states. An open adoption involves some amount of ongoing contact with adoptive families and birth families.
Yes: International adoption
Adopting from a foreign country may involve finding an agency willing to accept the adoptive parents' sexual orientation, discloisng the info to the contacts in the sending country, and presenting the information to the foreign governmet.
YEs: Professional prejudices and policy decisions
ADoption professionals must be aware of their personal prejudice . PRofessonals should consider:
If the child needs an adoptive family
No single factor should be the determing factor in assessing suitability for adoption
In considering gay parents sexual orientation and the capacity to nurture are separate issues and shouldn't be confused in the decision making process.
Each placement decision should be based on the strengths and needs of the individual child and perceived ability of the prospective adoptive family to meet those needs and develop additional strengths.
Yes: Coping with agency preference hierarchy
Many gay/lesbos are troubled by feeling that adoption agencies offer them the children who are most difficult to place; those with mental or physical disabilites who are older, children of color, and members of sibling groups.
The heirarchy prefers white, married, middle and upper middle class couples. These people don't want specialneeds. Less preferred children go to singles and gays.
YEs: Explaingin sexuality to the adopted child
Regardless of sexual orientation a family shares the same core values of love, respect, commitment, and understanding. Hat to show children there are many different cultures, communities, and families throughout the world.
Be honest about your identity and comfort level
if uncomfortable tell child but its' important for families to talk about difficult things.
listen to children and let them lead and ask questions
be as clear as possible about own feelings about sexuality, coming out, privacy, and family values
consider child's age and how much they need to know
No: FAmilees who are gay are more likely to molest example
16 yo foster son molested and raped by 2 mn The parents of the boy victimized protested against them being placed iwth gay couple. Additional when the boy complained to social worker that new foster parents had asked him if he had engaged in anal intercourse qirh his borther thought he had been coached to ask and ignored it. Soon after the men told the boy to look at scantily clad males and do things. WEeks after the man was arrested.
They decided the new theory trumped traditional idea that children heterosexual placement is better. NASW claim that unmarried and homos are as fit as married heterosexual couples. No info to back this claim. But the NASW says no evidence is required.
No: Where did the data come from?
If homosexual parents are the same as non homos gross failure parenting rates should be the same. So he looked at every news story from 1989 to 2001 that included child molestation in Lexus Nexis. over 5000 stories. Only news stories or first person acount were tallied. Only a few stories listed sexual preferences.
No: Were homos more likely to molest?
Yes three of 4 had previous involvement of molestation. Also charater flaws seem inherent in homo lifestyles.
No: What do the results suggest?
The results suggest a disproportionate molestation of foster children by those who engage in homosedxuality. Of 22 stories 15 involved homo molestation. Most were by men. Of the 19 men 63% were homos. 3 were married and 9 single. 7 heterosexual men molested.
NO: FRI study results
Interviewed 57 children raised by gays/lesbos. REported children did less well at schoo, less well socially, and often gave evidence of personal distress.