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74 Cards in this Set

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a person participated in illegal demonstration - example of ____ stage of moral development

Universal ethical principle

Order of Piagetian cognitive developmental stages:

1. Sensorimotor (simple reflexes, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, coordination of secondary circular reactions, tertiary circular reactions, internalization of schemas)


2. Pre-operational ( Egocentrism- believe that everyone is seeing things from the same perspective; centration- not able to focus on more than one thing at the time, conservation is not understood-2 half cookies are more than a whole one; symbolic thinking, intuitive thought)


3. Concrete operational (do cognitively what they used to do physically - conservation; decantation - focus on more than one dimension; transformational thought - understand process of thought; reversibility understood)


4. Formal operational (all cognitive skills developed; not universal; prospective; tendency to think that your thoughts and feelings are unique and no one else has the same suffering)

Cephalocaudal pattern: brain most likely to show fast growth

Brain growth is the fastest

One of the criticisms of Kohlberg's theory of moral development:

1. culturally biased


2. may not apply to females

Engaging in certain behavior due to the concept that if you get caught you will be punished is an example of ___

pre-conventional level of moral development

CAH- affected girls show:

a preference for boys toys

in countries where women are considered to be _____ to the workplace, childcare_____

vetal, widely available

Chasity norms, courtship rituals, and gender segregation are a part of the _____ that influences sexual debut

macrosystem

In Japanese kindergarden, children were the same uniform to impress on children

same

elderly aunt's care does not affect me directly but impacts me by extension:

example of exosystem

According to Kohlberg, moral development proceeds from:

external to internal control

How did Koko the monkey pointed to the existence of Language Acquisition Device?

Koko was never able to learn more than a rudimentary vocabulary. She is considered to be the evidence that language is unique to humans.

The transition to middle school is associated with:

decrease in academic motivation and achievenment

Harlow attachement experiment:

baby monkey spent more time with cloth monkey than wire monkey even if they were not being fed, giving insight into how attachment work

Thomas and Chess NYLS on temperament:

11 categories of characteristics: including regularity, reactivity to level stimuli, prevailing mood, adaptability, intensity of reaction, quality of mood, distractibility, attention span and persistence) NO data collected on NEONATAL period because the temperament of neonates is too variable.


Findings of the study: 3 categories of temperament: easy(40%), slow to warm-up(15%), difficult (10%)


Contribution of temperament to development: optimal development depends on "goodness of fit" between temperament and environment ( bx disorders).

Research on teacher feedback suggests that teachers:

both criticize and praise boys more than girls

Developmental niche (Super and Harkness):

1. the physical and social settings in which the child lives


2. the cultural childrearing and socialization practices of the child' society


3. psychological characteristics of parents and attitudes toward childrearing

CA longitudinal study:

early maturating boys tend to feel more positively about themselves, whereas early maturing girls were more likely to develop eating disorders

Positive emotions with partner, difficulty with being apart:

intimacy of love

Big 5 (OCEAN) Costa and McCrae:

psychometric approach to trait approach

For men in US ____ was more desirable characteristic that for men in China

love

reciprocal socialization:

kins socialize their parents just as they socialize kids

Baumring: parenting styles

authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive

most traits are determined by:

polydenic inheritance

Recent research on formal operations thinking during adolescence is

culture -specific

Gilligan

moral development theorist

psychosocial task for preschoolers

initiative vs. guilt (Erikson)

Language theorist Whorf: linguistic relativity

Finnish language has no he or she, Hibru has he, she , it. Israeli children learn gender identity and gender roles I year sooner than Finnish children

As compare to 100 years ago, menstruation begins:

3 years earlier

Factors that affect how teratogens impact the growing fetus:

the type of teratogen, the length of exposure, and the time of exposure during pregnancy (i.e. 3 weeks vs. 24 weeks)

during middle age, the ability to hear____declines first

high-pitched sounds

best design to control for cohort effects of study:

sequential research design

what has the longest period of vulnerability during pregnancy?

ear

ability to accept new set of rules and follow those new rules:

autonomous cooperation

the reason to attend preschool , American parents described as

to get ahead academically

the stage of moral development in which it is thought that if a rule is broken, punishment will follow inevitably:

immanent justice

T/F: for many people moral beliefs do not correlate with moral behavior

T

Models of acculturation:

alienation, assimilation, separation

essence of informal learning:

learning through observation and imitation

Sandra Scarr:

theory of personality development:


1. interactions between genes and environment - almost all traits


2. passive genotype: parents genotype influence environment


3. evocative environment effect: child's personality affects how other's react


4. active genotype: particular characteristics shape environment - con beens and coffee.




The interaction of genes and environment: passive genotype-environment effects, where parent's genotype influences the kind of learning environment provided to the kids. Scarr posited two other types of influence: the evocative environment effects, where a kid's genotype influences how others react to her and lastly, the active genotype-environment effects where a child chooses the environments where she is most likely to find success.

Practical intelligence is

experiential intelligence

In adolescence, the important role of peers is greater in ____, associated with extended education (more time spend at school), and is less in traditional societies.

Western societies

Social learning theory of personality:

if your environment changes, your personality changes

Infants: arms out and back in quickly

moro reflex

during their children's adolescents, father spend more time with their

sons

Judith Wellerstein

studied marriage and divorce

Most incidents of serious physical violence in US occur among

family members

____ contributions and almost always valued over the contributions of ___.


Cultural example of yams and sweet potatoes

Men's ; women

Preschool children raised by _____ parents show less gender stereotyped play than the same age children of ____ parents

LGBT; heterosexual

Kohlbest and Piaget similar in

stage theories of development

Presbyopia _

eyestrain, difficulty seeing in dim light, problems focusing on small objects and/or fine print.


the blind spot does not diminish

archer reflex in infants:

asymmetrical tonic neck reflex

5 principles of personality development:

1. similar in nature


2. differ with regard to dispositional traits


3. differ in characteristics adaptation


4. differ in narrative identities ( life stories)


5. differ in cultural and situational influences

Basic assumptions of personality development:

1. Freedom vs. Determinism ( Maslow strongly freedom oriented; able to do whatsoever or external focus controlled)


2. Rational vs. Irrational ( Erikson- capable vs. psychodynamic - directed by deeply rooted forces)


3. Nature vs. Nurture

Erikson psychosocial theory of development stages:

1. Trust vs. mistrust ( 0-1, needs met by caregiver) develop strength of hope


2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-2),willpower comes from autonomy


3. Initiative vs. guilt (3-4, make decisions, shape own development) purpose


4. Industry vs. inferiority ( 6-12, competency in world...read, write, do tasks) competency


5. Identity vs. role confusion (13-21, uniqueness, sense of self) identity


6. Intimacy vs. isolation (21-39, close relationship with others) fidelity


7. Generativity vs. stagnation (40-65, considering contributions) Generativity: biological - giving birth; parental - taking care of kids; work - teaching someone new skills; cultural - contributions to society) . Common failure - achieving symbolic immortality, commitment to goals, concerned for next generation. Manifestation of stagnation - mid life crisis. care


8. Ego integrity vs. dispare (65+, success in life vs. unsatisfied with life) wisdom.

Personality traits (big 5)Costa and McCrae (1992)

1. based on psychometric approach


2. set of trait dimensions


3. stable across lifespan


4. Not stages of development


5. Emerge early in life ( mother's know children's personality at the age 3)


6. May have genetic influence


7. Universal (differences in levels and expressions)





Bandura and Mischell: personality does not exist - it's all temperament:

situational influences on behavior

Language affect cognition (Bruner and Kenney, 1966)

test for transformation: 3 tasks- recreate the matrix of grasses; recreate missing glasses; transpose matrix...verbalize during tasks ( global, used by youngest; dimensional, used by older; confounded, mixed use)


Result: children's language use is associated with success.

Vygotsky - language role in developmental process

language is more than a mean to represent reality of express thoughts

Luria (student of Vygotsky) experiment:

Role of language in the behavior of children:


-squeeze balloon when light on, not squeeze when another light on


Results:


under 18 mo - squeeze both lights


2-5 y.o. - respond to instructions but can't stop when began ( language has initiator function, but not inhibitory)



Language:

Primary role in


Learning,


Formation of discriminations


Logical reasoning


Initiating, directing, & inhibiting covert behavior

Whorf's theory: language determines thought

First theory to explore relationship between language and culture:


-language allows individuals to express thought


-but also responsible for determining those thoughts


-Amazon gathered people count: 1, 2, many


-additionally: limited emotion vocabulary leads to emotion regulation issues

Language development:

1. language reflects cognitive development ( the way adults teach kids about culture and problem solving


2. children thinking and understanding of world is closely tight to language skills.


3. hardwired for language: learning emotions before language through intonation ( newborns prefer speech to non-spoken attention; 2 mo. old can distinguish among intonations; 71/2 mo. old demonstrate "word segmentation."

Genotype

a person's genetic inheritance

Phenotype

a person's observed characteristics, combined of heredity and environment

polygenic inheritance

most traits are influenced by multiple genes

polygenic traits

influenced by heredity and environment

environmental influences on development:

1. maternal health


2. presence of disease (rubella, AIDS) most risk posing for the child


3. malnutrition


4. stress

Nature vs. nurture (transactional model)

nature plays more role earlier in life, nurture is more important later in life

gene-based risk factors:

1. genetic abnormalities (cystic fibrosis, tay-sacks, anemia)


2. genetic abnormalities are due ro two recessive genes

chromosome-based risk factors:

1. are sex-linked or autosomal; and are deficiencies in chromosomes.


2. down syndrome, turner's, klinefelter's..

teratogens

1. substances that cross placental barriers and cause defects in embryo or fetus.


2. alcohol, narcotics, nicotine, lead


3. babied who are born addicted to drugs twice as likely to die after birth than not addicted babies and show behavioral effects of addiction at the age of 1 year old.



stages of braid development:

1. most rapid growth- prenatal first trimester


2. infant brain at birth is 25% of its adult weight

Reflexes and organized behaviors:

babinski: toes fan out when soles of the feet are tickles


babkin: close eyes, opens mouth, turns head to the side when pleasure is applied to both palms


rooting: turns head to the direction of touch to the cheek


moro: flings arms and legs outwards and then toward the body in response to loud noise


palmar grasp: grasps objects lightly when places on palm


stepping: makes coordinated walking movements when held upright


ancle clonus: press sole of the foot- toe curl