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173 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the process to form the neural tube?
Neural fold > Neural groove > Neural crest > Neural tube
Process that forms the neural tube, derived from the ectoderm.
Forbrain not formed right due to follic acid deficit.
What are the 3 primary vesicles of the brain?
Prosencephalon, Mesencephalon, Rhombencephalon
What are the 5 secondary vesicles?
Telencephalon, Diencephalon, Mesencephalon, Metencephalon, Myelencephalon
"segments" or compartments in the hindbrain - important for brain and nervous system patterning.
What influences the identity and fates of rhombomeres?
Hox genes
In formation of the neural tube what does the ectoderm release and to what portion of the neural tube?
TGF-Beta - BMP4 and BMP7
Roof plate
In formation of the neural tube what does the notochord release and to what portion of the neural tube?
Floor Plate
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins 4
Sonic hedgehog
Source of neurons in the neural tube (one cell layer thick)
Germinal neuroepithelium
Germinal epithelium: In what phase do cell bodies move outward?
S phase
Germinal epithelium: In what phase do cell bodies move inward?
3 basic zones of germinal epithelium
Ventricular zone
Intermediate zone
Marginal zone
After division, migrating cells form a second layer, contain the cell bodies.
Intermediate zone
The original inside single cell layer, sole source where new cells form.
Ventricular zone
Cells start to differentiate and have axons surrounded by glia.
Marginal zone
Neural tube forms the _________.
CNS (central nervous system)
Dorsal region receives input from sensory neurons.
Alar region
Ventral region where motor neurons transmit information to the body.
Basel region
Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system: outside CNS; nerves and ganglia
Bring input from sensory cell to the CNS.
Sensory neurons
Conveys impulses from CNS to muscle, gland or other effector tissue.
Motor neurons
An additional mitotic layer that forms in the cerebellum.
External granule layer
Maintain balance and variant muscle movements.
Forms in a tree form and branchlets can connect with other neurons.
Dendritic arbor
Thinking part of the brain, upper part and left/right part.
6 layers of the cerebellum created by migrating neuroblasts and glioblasts and form a corticle plate.
Granule neurons that go through mitosis multiple times and go back toward the inside layers.
Internal granule layer
What are the parts of the CNS?
Neurons, Oligodendrocytes, Astrocytes, Microglia
Required to determine a neuronal fate (notch/delta), transmembrane proteins
Neurogenic genes
Induce neural competence (achaete-scute complex), bHLH transcription factors, targets of notch
Proneural genes
Where do neuroblasts come from?
Mesodermal cells on ventral side after gastrulation.
Ability to respond into a specific inductive signal "the ear".
Notch loss of function mutation
ALL neurogenic ectodermal precursors develop into neural cells at expense of hypodermis.
Transmembrane ligand that contacts a transmembrane receptor.
Juxtacrine signaling
Ligand for notch
High concentrations of notch produce ________.
High concentrations of delta produce ________.
One cell makes more delta and down regulates the delta in neighboring cells, common theme to make cells different.
Lateral inhibition
Neurogenic ectodermal precursors develop into either neural or hypodermal cell fates (1 of 2 fates).
Bipotential cell fates
In Notch/Delta pathway what turns delta off?
Juxtacrine signaling
Examples of Neurogenic genes? Mutant phenotype? WT function?
Notch/ Delta
Mutant: too many neurons
WT: differentiation of some precursors to hypodermis fate (transmembrane proteins)
Examples of Proneural genes? Mutant phenotype? WT function?
Scute, Lethal of scute, Asense, Achaete
Mutant: too few neurons
WT: NB differentiation into neurons (TF)
Disease of the brain that disrupts the layer formation and migration, smooth brain.
Mechanism for positioning neurons within the developing mammalian brain.
Glial guidance
Conduct electrical impulses, communicate with other neurons and organs.
Neuronal cells
Surround neurons, providing metabolic and physical support.
Glial cells
Adhesion protein used by neurons to maintain its adhesion to the glial cell
What layers are inverted in the reeler mouse mutant?
Cerebral cortex (early inverted with late born).
What protein helps in migration and organization of neuronal cells?
Forms in the diencephalon from the retina and develops into the eye.
Optic vesicle
Lens thickens and is an elongation of the epithelial layer.
Lens placode
One tissue signals another to change or differentiate in some way "the voice".
Multiple rounds of communication between cells.
Reciprocal induction
Neuroblasts of the retina are initially competent to make all 7 cell types.
Neural retina
Broad gene transcription (mRNA) but not all cells translate the message into protein.
Regulated translation
Gene specific regulators of translation and sometimes transcription.
What separates pax-6 regions in the head?
Most important gene in eye development, inhibited by shh, Rx is a regulator.
Ectopic eyes on head of drosophila, poor organization of eye so not functional.
Formed by the neural ectoderm, 2 cell layers thick.
Optic cup
A gene that turns on/ regulates all genes downstream necessary to develop a portion of body (eye).
Master control gene
No eyes are formed.
Eyeless gene
Layer of cells in the epidermis that constantly divide and have kerationcyte stem cells.
Basal layer
Layer of cells in the epidermis of dead flat cells.
Cornified layer
Layer of cells in the epidermis of flat cells filled with keratin.
Granular layer
Layer of cells in the epidermis of spinny cells that make keratin.
Spinous layer
Actively dividing cells in the epidermis.
Malpighian layer
Cells producing melanin contained in the basal layer of the epidermis, hair follicles, inner ear, and eye; derive from the neural crest.
Pigmentation that is shown in cells.
Outer most layer of cells that make up the skin, derived from the ectoderm.
The inner layer of cells that make up the skin, derived from the mesoderm.
Retinal homeobox
Growth factor made in the dermis and help express basal cells in the epidermis.
KGF (Keratin growth factor)
Excessive exfoliation of epidermal cells.
Growth factor that acts on the same cell that signaled it, in basal cells.
Autocrine growth factor
A localized thickening of basal epidermal cells.
Epidermal placode
Collection of cells right below the epidermal placode.
Dermal papilla
Oil secreted by the sebaceous glands.
Outer most layer of a mature hair, contain a lot of keratin, large cells.
Middle layer of a mature hair, contains pigment filled cells.
Inner most layer of a mature hair, contains minimal protein.
Contains hair follicle and melanocyte stem cells.
Bulge region
Hair on a phetus.
Lanugo hair
Hair on a newborn that is soft, fine, and with little pigmentation.
Vellus hair
Mature, thicker, pigmented hair.
Terminal hair
Hair that is actively growing, month to years in this stage.
Mature anagen
Hair in the controlled regression stage, weeks.
Hair in the resting state, often shed.
Inhibited by Dickkopf.
Excess (terminal) facial/body hair in women.
Hair is more excessive than appropriate for age, sex, or ethnicity.
Dickkopf 1
Monomer with large amounts of black or brown melanin.
Eumelanin monomer
Large amounts of red melanin.
Pheomelanin monomer
Lack of melanin in hair, eyes, and/or skin, caused by a mutation in tyrosinase.
Gene at the beginning of melanin production that is colorless.
Protein in the skin that makes it water proof.
The neural crest (dorsal of neural tube) contributes to the development of what tissues?
Cranial neurons and glia, cartilage and bone, connective, pigment cells, sensory neurons and glia, and sympatho-adrenal cells.
Neural crest undergoes what kind of transition to change the shape, increase affinity for substrate, become motile, and lose adhesion?
EMT (Epithelial to mesenchymal transition)
What are the 3 major and 2 minor kinds of neural crest?
Major: Cranial, cardiac, and trunk
Minor: Vegal and sacral
2 paths cells take for trunk neural crest
1 - ventrally through anterior sclerotome
2 - dorsolateral route between epidermis and dermis
Phenotype due to incomplete migration and differentiation of neural crest cells contributing to melanocytes.
White spotting gene
Cells that develop the face, connective tissue, and cartilage.
Cranial neural crest
Cells that develop the septum of the heart and connective tissue of arteries.
Cardiac neural crest
Cells that develop melanocytes, adrenal medulla, nervous system, and dorsal root gaglion.
Trunk neural crest
Mutation in KIT gene that causes white patches of skin on the ventral side commonly on the stomach and forehead.
Receptor tyrosine kinase
Segmented block of tissue derived from paraxial mesoderm.
Cells from the trunk neural crest that migrate through the anterior portion of each somite (NOT posterior).
Cell surface tethered guidance cues, membrane dissociate protein, repulsive from posterior side of somite.
Interact with Ephrins in juxtacrine signaling, expressed on migrating neural crest cells, transmembrane protein with tyrosine kinase domain.
Eph receptor
Clips ephrin A and breaks the connection between the adjoined cells of the extracellular martix.
Where do the cranial neural crest cells migrate to and how?
Pharyngeal arches and frontonasal process by way of rhombomeres
Direct conversion of neural crest derived mesenchyme into bone (no cartilage intermediate).
Intramembraneous ossification
Committed to bone prefix, secreted by the osteoid matrix and binds with Ca2++.
Cells embedded in the osteoid matrix committed to bone prefix.
Formation of bone tissue where cartilage is present and essential in the growth in length of the bones.
Endochondral ossification
3 parts of the limb from proximal to distal
Stylopod, Zeugopod, Autopod
Free limb cells that have the potential to generate a limb.
Limb field
Cell-cell communication allows cells to sense their environment and adjust cell fates accordingly to make a complete structure (in contrast to mosaic development).
Regulative development
Type of mesoderm that gives rise to cells that make the limbs.
Lateral plate mesoderm
What type of mesoderm makes up limb buds?
Both lateral plate and paraxial mesoderm
Earliest signal in the bud tissue to signal limb to form, paracrine factor.
FGF 10
(Fibroblast growth factor 10)
Gene that signals to form the forelimb (arm/wing).
Gene that signals to form the hindlimb (leg).
Formation of a limb that expresses both leg and wing, combination of the hindlimb and forelimb.
Plasma membrane internalized until destabilized and cells break apart.
Gives information to limb bud to be anterior or posterior, determines axis.
ZPA: Zone of polarizing activity
Thickening of ectoderm at the tip of a developing limb bud, required for bud outgrowth.
AER: Apical ectodermal ridge
What is the source of FGF 10?
What helps stabilize the expression of FGF 10? Where?
Wnt in LPM (lateral plate mesoderm) region
Concept that AER and FGF10 are interdependent, without one the other doesn't work or and isn't generated. Gene regulation coordinates AER and mesenchyme.
Feed-forward loop
What are the major players in limb formation?
Wnt's, Tbx's, and FGF's
What is Wnt used for?
Continued limb growth in length
What is Tbx used for?
Determination of hindlimb or forelimb
How is the proximo-distal axis formed?
Progress Zone Model
Early Allocation and Progenitor Expansion Model
The axis is laid down a little at a time.
Progress Zone Model
The axis is formed very early in a small rudiment that then expands to form the limb.
Early Allocation and Progenitor Expansion Model
A high MW extracellular matrix glycoprotein, binds integrin receptors, important in cell-cell adhesion.
Chondrocytes start to express TGFbeta and begin to condense.
Active site
Precursor to cartilage
Cartilage nodules continue forming, building on the first condensations.
Frozen zone
FGF's diffuse from AER, inhibit fibronectin synthesis, no condensation of nodules.
Apical zone
What molecules act as the ZPA morphogen?
Shh but only in ZPA posterior region
Extra digits
Alters the expression pattern of shh in limb bud, extra digits (gain of function)
Hx: Hemimelic extra toes
Gene that limits the number of digits
Fingers fused or joined and used together.
Paracrine factor that respecifies cells to a more proximal position, synthesized in the epidermis and forms gradients through blastema.
RA: retinoic acid
What specifies the dorsal ventral axis?
Ectoderm and Wnt 7 (more on D side)
Programmed cell death.
Cell death due to wounding.
Polydactyly and syndactyly together.
Three ways to regenerate?
Epimorphosis, morphallaxis, compensatory regeneration
Period of dedifferentiation then re-differentiation into a new portion of the limb (starting over to form a limb).
Re-patterning of existing tissue without additional growth.
Replace missing parts with already differentiated cells.
Compensatory regeneration
On head region of a hydra that helps to sweep in food.
A cell that has gone backwards and has become undifferentiated.
A cell that has been dedifferentiated and now differentiated again.
Protective covering that covers a limb that has been lost during the regeneration process.
Wound epidermis
Mound of dedifferentiated cells beneath the epidermis.
Low retinoic acid signals a cell to have a more ________ position.
RA synthesized in the ________ forms a gradient through ________ and activates ________ gene.
What are the hypostome gradient candidates?
Wnt (paracrine factor)
goosecold (TF)
What are the foot gradient candidates?
Shin guard gene - inhibitory
manacle gene - regulate shin guard
Epimorphosis regeneration process
wound healing > dedifferentiation > blastema beneath epidermis > blastema elongation > re-patterning > redifferentiation