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24 Cards in this Set

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Intimate, reciprocated positive relationship between two people

Friendship

Developmental changes during friendship include

Better communication, more cooperation, more conflict with friends

Between ages 6 and 8, friendship is defined by

Amount of time spent together and amount of sharing

By about 9-10 years of age friendships based on

Mutual liking, closeness, and loyalty

By adolescence, friendship

is context for self-exploration, working out personal problems, source of honest feedback

Functions of friends

Emotional support


Reassurance, make you feel competent


Important during transition periods involving peers


Buffer against unpleasant experiences

How do we choose friends?

Proximity


Age


Gender


Similar interests and behavior

Stable friendship groups that children voluntarily form or join

Cliques

From age 11 to 15 (regarding cliques)

Rise in # of kids that belong to more than one clique, increase in stability of cliques, value being popular and conform to group norms

From age 15 to 18 (regarding cliques)

Less interested in conforming to group norms, fulfill social needs through individual relationships, but still may belong to a crowd

How do you measure peer status

Rate how much you like/dislike classmates


Nominate those you like the most, like the least etc.

Measure of peer status

Sociometric status

The 5 sociometric classes

Popular


Rejected


Neglected


Average


Controversial

Characteristics of popular children

Good social skills, initiating interactions, maintaining positive relationships

Characteristics of neglected children

Unnoticed by peers, neither liked or disliked. Tend to be less sociable, more aggressive and disruptive

Characteristics of controversial children

Liked by some peers, disliked by others. Tend to be aggressive, disruptive, prone to anger, but also sociable, cooperative, good at sports

Characteristics of aggressive-rejected children

Prone to hostile/threatening behavior, disruptive, delinquent behavior

Characteristics of withdrawn-rejected children

Socially withdrawn, weary, feel socially isolated and lonely

Stability of sociometric status: which kids are likely to stay in the same category?

Popular and rejected kids

Which kids are most likely to change status

Neglected and controversial kids

Ways that parents can influence children's peer relationships

Quality of attachment


Quality of ongoing parent child interactions


Parental beliefs and behaviors

Children who are targets of their peer's aggression and demeaning behavior

Victimized children

When parents arrange and oversee interactions with peers

Gatekeeping

Explicitly telling children how to deal with unfamiliar playmates, or enter a group of children, improves their social competence

Coaching