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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Metaphysics during the age of reason?
-who cares?
-Assumed dualism: God's world, material world, focus on the material world
Epistemology in the British Isles?
-focused on the "out there"
-all empiricists: Locke
(rejection of a transcendent basis for knowledge as a whole)
Epistemology of the continent?
-focused on the "in here"
-all innatists: Descartes
-continental rationalists=innatist
(rejection of a transcendent basis for knowledge as a whole)
What was Francis Bacon's approach to knowledge?
-throw out the past
-clean out the "idols of the mind"
-ground real knowledge on empirical data from "out there"
What was Rene Descartes's Approach to knowledge?
-throw out the past
-clean out ideas which can be doubted
-Ground real knowledge on innate certainty "in here"
What did Francis Bacon and Rene Descarte both ground knowledge on?
the self
What did Humanism look like during the age of reason?
-optimism about human abilities: rationalist credo dominiate and advance of science
-optimism about human nature: humans are basically good
-human rights
-fairly recent invention
-not in classical or medieval world: people never signed paintings
-individualism from Renaissance
-basic rights
What were the problems with the politics during the age of reason?
-the theory is that everyone has basic human rights, but that is not how society is structured
-only the people at the top get to make their own decisions
What were the solutions for the politics during the age of reason?
Enlightened despotism
-Thomas Hobbes
-have one enlightened one that will look out for everyone
Ex. King Louis (above society; did everything in public, wife even gave birth in public)

Locke thought Democracy was solution
-the way to preserve human rights to have a balance of the power like USA politics
What did religion look like during the age of reason?
-"Rational Religion" of Deism
-we should throw out all the superstitions
What did Descartes think about his education?
-it was just one opinion after another and a complete waste of time
-only valuable thing was math
What was the driving force for Descartes?
-to find certainty
What are Descartes' rules to finding certainty?
1. Begin with "clear and evident intuition" [innate idea]
2. Move deductively
3. From simple to complex one step at a time (just like geometry)
What is the role of the senses in finding certainty?
But after we have have certainty they can be useful
What is the key issue of the destructive program or methodological doubt?
-to find certainty
What is the purpose of doubting according to Descartes?
-to find certainty
-0% doubt= 100% certainty
-doubt as a tool or weapon
What is the difference between methodological doubt vs. psychological doubt?
-methodological doubt= ANYTHING that can be logically doubted
ex. Natalie and not being her, but in a mental hospital instead

-Psychological doubt= what actually worries you
What are the 4 D's of methodological doubt?
-Doctrines (authoritarianism)
-Deceiving senses (empiricism) ex. mirage
-Dreams (intuitionism?)
-Demon that whispers in your ear
What is the conclusion to the methodological doubt?
-there is nothing I can't doubt-except...
-that I am doubting, so there must be an I to be doubting!!!
Cogito Ergo Sum!- I think, therefore I am!
Describe certainty A in the constructive program?
-Cogito ergo sum
-I think, therefore I am
Describe certainty B in the constructive program.
- God exists

p1 Everything, including our ideas, has a cause
p2 I have an idea of a perfect God
p3 Nothing less than God is adequate to cause my idea of God
c God exists
Describe certainty C in the constructive program.
-I can trust my senses (subject to my God-given reason)

Argument for the Reliability of Senses (simplified)
p1 God [a perfect being] exists.
p2 A perfect being [God] would not deceive.
c1 God has not given me a faculty that will lead me into error, provided I use it properly.
c2 I can trust my senses if I use them properly.
What is the conclusion to the Constructive Program?
Destructive program (doubt): Doctrines, Deceiving senses, dreams, demon-> I

Constructive Program: I->God->Accurate observations of the world
Anthropology of Descarte.
-body is a big complex machine that we can fix
-the mind is non-material; "spiritual"-not religious, but it is spirit and not a machine
-Relationship to faith & reason: Free will vs. Determinism
-Continuing implications: penal system, raising children, changing behavior
What is the legacy of Descartes?
Birth of "Modernism": searching for Truths that are...
1. Timeless (non-historical)
2. Certain
3. Foundational
-you can set aside your cultural background and go find truth
5. Objectively

**The importance of the "I"

-all led to late Renaissance individualism
Define hypothesis.
-A statement about why or how
-an educated guess
-a reason for why your observation is what it is
Define theory.
Is provisional and NEVER proven.
-it is temporary and replaceable
How does Newton's law of gravitation predict the orbit of the moon?
-without gravity the moon would fall in a straight line, but instead it goes in circles around the Earth
What was the impact of Newton's laws upon our worldview?
-laws of the heavens are the same as the laws of the Earth
-clockwise universe--that operates according to laws
-Nature can be described by mathematical relationships which have great predicting capabilities
Describe Newton's 3 laws of motion.
1. Object at rest will tend to stay at rest unless acted upon by a force and an object in motion will tend to stay in motion unless acted upon by a force like friction

2. F=MA (Force=Mass x Acceleration)

3. Every action has an opposite and equal reaction
List and explain the steps in the scientific method.
1. Observation of phenomena
-empiricism which is not necessarily unaided

2. Creation of hypothesis
-intuitionism, innatism

3. Make predictions based upon the hypothesis

4. Perform experiments that have the ability to prove the hypothesis false
-testing the predictions
-the test must be able to disprove this hypothesis in order for it to be valid

Example of diffusion
Describe a geocentric view of the Universe.
-Earth is as the center of the entire known universe
-Perfect, eternal circular movements
Planets: The “problem of the planets”
-Only uniform circles allowed
-Solution: “epicycles”
**Define Epicycles.
the circular way the planets move around the Earth
Describe a heliocentric universe.
-sun is at the center
What was Ptolemy's universe?
-Earth is fixed, immovable
What was Copernicus' view of the Universe?
Earth is spherical and not at center
Planets: still have circular orbits
Earth rotates on axis and it moves around
the sun.
What are Kepler's first and second laws of planetary motion?
1. Geometric shape:
-planets travel in elliptical orbits around the sun, not circular orbits

2. Equal areas in equal time
-Planets sweep out equal areas in equal time
(as they orbit around the sun
List five celestial observations of Galileo and explain why they were “impossible.”
1. Mountains and valleys on the Moon.
-heavens were supposed to be perfect and mountains and valleys were a sign of sin

2. Sunspots
-sun is in heavens so should be perfect; sin in eden corrupted earth only

3. Milky Way--beyond the fixed stars; God's perfection is evidenced most clearly in the stars

4. Moons of Jupiter--only earth can have a moon

5. Phases of Venus--waxes and wanes from an earthly perspective and it should remain constant; the universe beyond the moon CANNOT have been diminished since creation
What is the state of nature according to Hobbes?
We're bodies in motion (mechanism
1.Actions, drives—Power
-no person is more privileged above others
-we all want power
2. Body, mind—CAPACITY
-our mental abilities come out of our experiences
3. Freedom to seek power/survival
-we each have the right/ability to want survival/power
What is the problem with Hobbes' view of nature?
-nature's resources are limited
What is meant by Hobbes quote that "Life is...solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."?
WAR: every man against every man because each of us want something that we can't all have
Describe Hobbes' Social Contract. What should be the form of the state, given human nature?
-We’re driven by FEAR to seek peace, defend ourselves

--We make an agreement with each other.
-the government will be in charge
--Government plays a negative role
-they have to impose law and order
--Government must be POWERFUL (Leviathan)
--Government is NECESSARY—not just convenient
Who believed in Rex Lex and what does it mean?
Hobbes; The king is law. "King Law"

-We cannot demand our rights back when we disagree. We cannot break our agreement with each other.

This should be followed for safety and protection; there is no other way to live safely.
What does tabula rasa mean and who believed this?
Locke; the mind is a tabula rasa
-we are a blank slate at birth
-experience writes on this blank slate

-there are no ideas born into you
-need for experimental verification
-affirms NATURAL LAW
What is the state of nature according to Locke?
Free- humans are free
-Not determined
-Free moral agents

• No natural hierarchy
• Equal in “blood”

• Self-interested
• We each exist separately

Moral [Natural Law]
• Life, liberty, and property
-To maintain the rights of others
How did Locke think Hobbes was incorrect?
-no "war of all against all"
What was Locke's view of human nature?
-knowing NATURAL LAW
-Moral Law
-discovered by Reason
-Revealed in Scripture
-Positive view of human nature
What is the social contract according to Locke? What is the form of the government?
-because it is more convenient
-State of Nature is inconvenient
-Rational self-interest: civil society is better
-Convenient—but not necessary
-Ex. Of the road being owned by private vs. city
According to Locke, on what basis do we form a social contract?
-We make a contract with the sovereign (For Hobbes, the sovereign is not a part to the contract
-Sovereignty always belongs to the people
-Preserves liberty and property; Provides security
-We “loan out” some of our rights
-We NEVER give up our basic rights of life, liberty, and property
-We owe loyalty to the sovereign
What does Lex Rex mean and who believes this?
The law is King. NO one is above the law, not even the king.

Locke believes this.

Example: U.S. Congress
According to Locke who has sovereignty?
-Sovereignty belongs to the people
-So if sovereign is not seeking the COMMONWEALTH (the good for all) then they can be thrown out
-Representative government
What is Locke's significance?
Rational self-interest & cooperation
-able to cooperate
Rights & Duties
-preserved for both sovereign and citizen
Argument from human nature
-emphasizes common purpose
Constitutional democracy
-non-religious government
-the need for the responsibility of the state
-He acknowledges human DIGNITY
What was James Madison's response to Locke and Hobbes view of nature and government?
The situation
-New York and the Constitution

The argument
-Federalist Papers
-Checks and Balances

The result
-It didn’t work. It was not successful…so led to…
-Bill of Rights (made New York agree)
-tells the way the govt. does not have power
What is the significance of Leviathon?
Hobbes treatise on government.
What is Rousseau's view of the state of nature? How is this different than Hobbes?
Society vs. Natural man
-society corrupts the natural state
-Creates laws of property (ownership)
-creates unnatural desires

Natural man
-natural goodness
-natural happiness--desires do not exceed means
-natural independence

Hobbes- thought that man's nature was naturally at war Man vs. man
What scientific advances made European exploration possible?
-navigation based on Galileo's measurements of longitude and latitude
-ship design based on Magellan's design which allowed people to circle the globe
-map-making or cartography
What were the results of exploration for Europe?
-Fuedal era-personal sworn loyalties to an individual lord
-early nation states- competition and warfare
-age of discovery-discovery of other land outside of Europe (A question of sameness?)
-also maps become more accurate as new lands were discovered
What were the three views for the OTHERS discovered by Europeans?
-The OTHER as savage
-as an animal/untamable beast
-The OTHER as White Man's Burden
-someone we should go and help
-our responsibility to care for because they are childish and we can offer civilization

-the OTHER as Noble Savage
-they are better than us and we can learn much from them because they are not corrupted by society
How are Burke's views similar to Hobbes?
-negative view of human nature (therefore conserve institutions)
How are Burke's views different than Hobbes?
-The role of history- tradition in history impose order and stability
Describe Burke's view of the state?
-provide structure and stability
-rulers should solve present problems
-citizens have duties vs. rights
-authority comes from community because community matters the most
Burke's anthropology or view of original sin and reason?
-accepts original sin: Reason is fallen, limited
-rejects (moral) chronological progress
-sin is always there, and that limits our ability to be moral human beings
What are the dangers of idealism according to Burke?
1. limited understanding of ideals
2. misinterpretation of personal motives
3. ideals exist only in the imagination
4. leveling never equalizes (there always has to be somebody or people in power so there is never true equality
How did Burke view the American revolution?
-thought americans were doing a good thing because the American colonies had developed important traditions of their own that needed to be perserved
How did Burke view the French revolution?
-did not support is because it was opposing traditions
How did Burke challenge Enlightenment idealism?
-he critiqued it with his confidence in rational ideals
How does Burke's view contrast with Calvin's?
-similar: negative view of unaided reason
-difference: the transformation mandate
What is the role of tradition according to Burke?
-to preserve order
How did Mary Wollstonecraft view subordination?
-thought Burke was wrong
-society "weeps over the misery in high places", but overlooks the wretched and the poor
-thought classed society only benefited those in high places and hurt the poor
How did Mary Wollstonecraft view injustice in society?
-wanted to relieve injustice and poverty and grant the people political rights
-views similar to Locke's idea of the social contract
-borrows ideas from the Declaration of the Rights of Man & the citizen
How did Mary Wollstonecraft view progress?
-thought history was moving forward or towards
-denied "original sin" and believed that human nature was not depraved
-affirmed possibility of moral progress
-doctrine of "perfectability" -human beings can make significant moral progress
According to Wollstonecraft, what was wrong with Rosseau's model for education?
-it is gendered
-Boys get an education (like in Emile
-girls get trained (like in Sophie)
How did Wollstonecraft answer Rousseau?
1. Unequal treatment of the sexes
2. Separate- children get separated by gender early on
3. Mentality- "harem mentality"
-girls are trained to be sexy, cute, and fertile
What was Mary Wollstonecraft's view on virtue?
-virtue is non-gendered
According to Wollstonecraft, why do women remain inferior?
1. Lack of education
2. Undeveloped reason
What are the traditional definitions of male and female?
-defensive (virginity)

-active (going out and doing good things)
According to Mary Wollstonecraft, what is wrong with society?
-bad education for both and girls
-men become crippled by their prejudices for women
-we are unhappy because of our unbalanced civilization
-we need to educate all of society
How are all the empiricist before Hume "cheaters"?
-look at particulars to get universals (can't observe universals; what color are they? etc.)

-God? What color? What does he smell like?

-Tabula Rasa
-Moral Law? What color is it?
-external world? how can you observe this?
Describe the empiricists vs. rationalists.
• Continental Rationalists=Innatist (in Core 250)
• British Isles—all Empiricists: Hobbes, Locke, Berkley, Hume
• Continent—all innatists: Descartes (Spinoza, Leibniz)
What is Hume's view of God?
-there isn't one
-therefore there are no miracles
What is the nature of impressions?
-vivid and distinct and strike the mind with force and liveliness (all emprical)
What is the source of impressions?
-unknown; must say I don't know instead of saying from external world
-example: looking "out" at the stars
Where is the location of impressions?
-in the mind
-taste tastes, smell smells
-Is there a world "out there"?
What is the nature of ideas?
-less vivid, less distinct strike the mind with less force and less liveliness
what is the source of ideas?
-come from impressions
What is the relationship between ideas and impressions?
• All meaningful ideas are derived from impressions
• There are no ideas that do not have their source in an impression
What are the relationships between ideas?
a. Resemblance
• One idea resembles another

b. Contiguity in Space and Time
• Nearness to each other in space and time

c. Causality
• One idea follows another long enough, we say one caused the other
• Really just a habit of the mind
What is the empirical criterion of meaning according to Hume?
"Any given idea has meaning only if there is an impression (or combination of impressions) which it is copying."
What is an example of impressions and ideas?
• Movie
o Where is the “mov”-ie?
o In your mind

• TV
o Watching 1 or 3 dots!
o Movement is all in your mind
What is Hume's view of causality?
-we have no impression of a "cause"
-ex. of a bat hitting a baseball
-correlation does not equal cause
-it is really just a habit of the mind
-the idea of "causality" is actually meaningless
What is Hume's view of substance?
• Is what is left when you take away all the sensory properties
• Without sensory properties, there is nothing to discuss!
• The idea of ‘substance” is meaningless!
What is Hume's view of the self?
• Do you ever have an impression of your self?
o Not your BODY, but your SELF!
• An experiment: Try reflecting on your SELF
• Some problems with Descartes’ “certainty”
• The idea of a “self” is meaningless!
What is one problem Hume brings up about Descartes' certainty/ the "cartesian tragedy"?
• He sets out to give a certain basis for empirical knowledge, but ends up undermining it completely
• You only end up with I exist and I am unsure about anything else
What is the bigger problem with Descartes' "certainty"?
• He should have said ideas exist.
• We can’t just assume there is some I that is a receptacle for our thoughts
o Because we could doubt that too
What are Hume's views about God?
• What does God look like? Smell like? Sound like?
• The concept of God is meaningless!
o “What about my experience in church?!”
o “What about seeing a changed life?!”
o “What about seeing a miracle?!”
o “What about Saul & Damascus?!”

• It is not that there is no God—he is not really an atheist.
• Rather, the idea of “G-o-d” is meaningless!
What are Hume's views on scientific induction?
• Science is based on history
• Science is based on a faith that the future will be like the past (uniformity of nature)
• But I have no impressions of the future
• All science is “fortune telling”
-odds of a coin flip
• Science is based on a faith that the future will be like the past (uniformity of nature)
• But I have no impressions of the future
• All science is “fortune telling”
What are the main points that can be concluded from Hume's ideas about scientific induction?
• Hume is consistent!
• Hume is central to the dominant version of the scientific revolution
o If it makes no empirical difference, science isn’t interested
• Logical Positivism
• He challenges the Age of Reason
• He provides a serious challenge to Christianity:
o Point to some empirical difference your faith makes!
What things does Kant agree with the empiricists?
-knowledge come through the senses
-he is an empiricists
What things does Kant disagree with the empiricists?
-mind is not passive
-"you are not sitting back taking in sensations
-specifically disagrees with Hume: there must BE something which appears to have appearances
What things does Kant agree on with the innatists?
-the mind is active
-there is something innate...
What things does Kant disagree on with the innatists?
-there are innate ways of processing the empirical data
-No ROM, only RAM
-But a hardwired architecture
What are the 3 elements of Kant's epistemology?
1. Phenomenal World
2. Noumenal World (das Ding an Sich)
3. World of Understanding
What is the phenomenal world according to Kant?
-the world of experience
-it is any experience whatsoever, not just something unusual
What is the noumenal world (das Ding an Sich)?
-the way things really are, not how they appear
-the thing itself
-this world is beyond our experiences
What does the phrase das Ding an Sich mean?
-the thing in itself
What is the world of understanding according to Kant?
-what our mind does with the information
What are the three structures of understanding in Kant's world of understanding?
1. Forms of intuition
2. Categories of the mind
3. The ideas of reason
Describe the first structure of Kant's world of understanding. (Forms of intuition)
-space- most things are "processed through this structure

-time- EVERYTHING is "processed" through this structure

-these are not features of the "real" (i.e. Noumenal) world, but ways of processing our data
Describe the second structure of Kant's world of understanding. (categories of the mind)
-12 categories, including:
1. substance
2. causality

-again, not real things, but the way we process information
Describe the third structure of Kant's world of understanding. (the ideas of reason)
-self, world, and God

1. das Ding an Sich
2. Raw sense data
3. Space and time
4. 12 categories
5. concepts
6. self, world, God

*all of this is in the mind except das Ding an Sich
*process is like a meat grinder
*we recognize the place of the KNOWER in this process and rarely say "this is reality"
Describe the two approaches to ethics.
utilitarian- an action is good if it has good consequences

deontological- an action is good if it is done with an intention to do one's duty (regardless of the consequences)
What is the relationship between is and ought?
-is does not equal ought
-knowing what the facts are does not give you enough to know what you ought to know
-so facts alone do not yield moral values
What do pure and practical reason deal with?
-pure reason deals with objects of reason
-practical reason deals with objects of the will
What is Kant's approach to ethics?
Kant: what is the role of the will?
-brings moral law into action
Kant: what is the definition of the Good?
-the good will- willing to do the good, regardless of the consequences
what is the difference between hypothetial and categorical good?
-hypothetical: "If...then..."
-categorical: "Just do it!"
-"Do the good though the heavens may fall"
Describe the categorical imperative.
"Act on that maxim (or principle) whereby you can at the ame time will that it should become a universal law."

-Do you want everyone to do it? Then do it.

-If you don't want everyone to do it, then don't do it.
-situational circumstances are irrelevant