• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

Card Range To Study



Play button


Play button




Click to flip

Use LEFT and RIGHT arrow keys to navigate between flashcards;

Use UP and DOWN arrow keys to flip the card;

H to show hint;

A reads text to speech;

144 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is CB?
Study of how people select, purchase, use and/or dispose products, services, etc. to fulfill needs & desires
cognition (thought)
product-related knowledge, beliefs, opinions, intentions
affect (feeling)
product-related emotions
observable behaviors
product-related decisions & actions
Loss leaders
help to attract customers. ex. CDs at Walmart
relationship marketing
interact with€ customers regularly; give them reasons to
maintain a bond with the company
exploratory research
no explicit hypothesis, utilize association techniques (word association, emotionality) projective techniques (storytelling), focus group. helps evaluate postion, helpful to look @ speed of response & whether it is pos or neg
problem-solving research
specific hypothesis. Descriptive/Correlational research (e.g., consumer panel, survey, observation). what ppl say: survey. what ppl do: observation.
measure the relationship b/t 2 variables (causation not implied)
dangers of what people say...
introspection cannot always be counted on. most meaning is conveyed through non-verbal cues.
economic man; rational
irrational consumer; vulnerable to external influences
problem solver; try to make the best decision given certain limitations (Miller's chunk, 5-9 chunks)
cognitive miser; use heuristics to simplify decisions
constructive processor.
Consumer Decision Process
need/problem recognition -> info search ->alternative eval -> purchase -> consumption -> post-purchase behavior
pros & cons to CDP model?
adv: can be applied to wide range of situations
dis: can be very complex, complications of hyperchoice
extended problem solving (EPS)
All stages in the process are followed.
More expensive products, infrequently purchased,
high consumer involvement , unfamiliar products
limited problem solving (LPS)
No time, resources, or motivation to engage in EPS
Less expensive products, frequently purchased, low consumer involvement, familiar products
mid-range problem solving
between EPS & LPS
Habitual Decision Making
for repeat purchases, lowest difficulty of decision making
problem/need recognition
1st stage of decision making, there is a perceived diff b/t an ideal and actual state
opportunity recognition
ideal state changes
need recognition
actual state cahnges
how are needs activated
Time €
Changed circumstances €
Product acquisition €
Product consumption €
Product innovation €
Marketing influence
information search
2nd stage of CDM process, motivated action of knowledge either independent (memory) or experiential (environment)
familiarity effects
amt of search differs depending on level of product knowledge
searching by brand
used by experts, used in the later stages of a search
searching by attribute
used by novices, used in early stages of search
confirmation bias
Seek out information that confirms our existing beliefs and weight this information more than information that disconfirms our belief
mood bias
Positive mood makes us evaluate options more favorably
negative bias
Negative information is perceived to be more salient, diagnostic and weighted more heavily in judgment
Alternative Evaluation
determining evaluation criteria and choice alternatives, assessing alternatives, and applying decision rules
evaluative criteria
dimensions used in judging choice alternatives. can be utilitarian (practical) or hedonic (pleasurable, emotional)
evoked set
A subset of available alternatives that we know about
Consideration set
A subset of available alternatives that we consider when making a choice
Restrictions or requirements for acceptable attribute values that customers employ in judging performance of alternatives
Cues or Signals
Brand name, warranty, or price as a quality signal
compensatory decision rule
A perceived weakness of one attribute may be offset or compensated for by the perceived strength of another attribute. Requires explicit trade-offs among alternatives.
-Simple additive rule
-Weighted additive rule
non-compensatory decision rule
A product’s weakness on one attribute cannot be offset by its strong performance on anther attribute Decision making process proceeds in a simple and sequential manner.
-Conjunctive rule
-Disjunctive rule
-Lexicographic rule
-Elimination-by-aspects (EBA) rule
weighted additive
assumes rational consumer, brand-based processing (aka overall not attribute by attribute)
-attribute x weight and add all up
equal weight
Considering all of the alternatives and all of the attribute values for each alternative
brand-based processing
additive difference
Alternatives are processed in pairs with the values of the two alternatives compared on each attribute.
-attribute-based processing
Consumers set up minimum cutoffs for each attribute that represent the absolute lowest value the consumer would accept.
-brand-based processing
Similar to conjunctive rule with two important exceptions:
-Consumers set up acceptable levels for the cutoffs, levels that are more desirable.
-Evaluations are made on several (rather than all) of the most important attributes (choose first brand that meets cutoff on one
attribute or small subset)
Determines the most important attribute, and then examines the values of all alternatives on that attribute.
The alternative with the best value on the most important attribute is selected.
-attribute-based processing
elimination-by-aspects (EBA)
Similar to the lexicographic rule except that EBA €
incorporates the notion of an acceptable cutoff
-After attributes are ordered in terms of importance, €
alternatives are compared on the most important
-attribute-based processing
what leads to store loyalty?
store image: location, merchandise suitability, knowledge of staff.
interior design, types of patrons, return policies, credit availability
cognitive dissonance
regret; can lead to abortion of the consumption process. post-purchase effect. consumers will seek balance in the psychological set by seeking supporting info or distorting contradictory info
marketing implications of cognitive dissonance?
-make claims that accurately depict product performance
-contact buyers post purchase
-depict satisfied buyers in advertising
80% of sales come from __% of your customers
why is customer satisfaction important?
-influences repeat buying
-shapes word-of-mouth communication
-dissatisfaction can lead to complaints
customer lifetime value
how much money a customer spends over a lifetime at a given retailer
dissatisfaction leads to...
-voice responses: seeking redress from the seller
-private responses: negative word-of-mouth
-third-party responses: taking legal action
when performance = expectations
when performance < expectations
when performance > expectations
negative disconfirmation
performance is less than expected
positive disconfirmation
performance is greater than expected
performance matches expectations
outright disposal, recycling, remarketing
"satisficing" strategy
picking something that is just good enough. use of heuristics
use of heuristics leads to biases which are...
systematic errors
types of heuristics
performance, habit, brand loyalty, price
impulse purchases
unplanned urge to buy that results from additional info in store
Normative Model
how should ppl make decisions? (rational, optimizing).
Prescriptive Model
how can we help people make better decisions? (debiasing, correcting)
people make relative judgments
Descriptive Model
how do people actually make decisions?
(bounded rational, heuristics, satisficing)
framing effects:
____ loom larger than equivalent _____
losses, gains
Category membership
if A is highly similar to B, A seems to belong to B
Causal judgments
if A is highly similar to B, A seems to cause B
representative heuristic
Judge the probability that an item is a member €
of a class by the degree to which the item is
representative of (resembles) the class
Availability Heuristic
Focus on the ease with which instances can be brought to mind
Anchoring & Adjustment
adjustment often insufficient
anchors often irrelevant
For any marketing stimulus to
have an impact, consumers should be ____ to it, pay ____ to it, and ____ it in the way marketers intend
exposed, attention, perceive
the immediate response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and fingers) to basic stimuli (light, color, sound, odor, and texture)
the process by which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted
occurs when there is physical €
proximity to a stimulus that allows one or more of our five senses the opportunity to
be activated
Activation happens when a stimulus meets or exceeds _______
the lower threshold
fast forwarding past commercials
switching to other channel during a commercial w/ remote
flipping (ignoring)
moving from one channel to another
marketing tactics to get consumers' attention?
road blocking, repetition, message placement (beg. vs. end), distribution, non-traditional routes (sponsorships)
product placement pros and cons?
realism, efficient, endorsement effect
con: lacks control
the extent to wich processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus
attention intensity
the amt of info ppl can attend to (5-9 units)
Why do consumers pay
novelty(context-dependent), unexpected stimuli, vividness(not context-dependent)
personal selection factors: vigilance
more aware of stimuli that relate to current needs
personal selection factors: defense
see what you want to see
personal selection factors: adaptation
degree to which stimuli noticed over time
How can marketing managers
grab consumers’ attention?
isolation, big size, intensity, surprise, human attraction, less clutter, easy to process, attention grabbing stimuli, connect w/ consumer needs
auditory intensity
determines whether sound will be perceived
sonic identity
using songs to support brand image
absolute threshold
minimum amount of stimulus €
intensity needed for detection
Just-noticeable difference (JND)
differential threshold; The amount by which two stimuli must differ before a person can perceive that they are different
Weber's Law
the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different
subliminal perception
the activation of sensory receptors by stimuli presented below the threshold level of awareness
mere exposure effect
subliminal presentation of a stimulus can lead to increased liking for the stimulus (caveat: has to be neutral. no preconceived notions)
gestalt psychology
When we see an item, we €evaluate it as a “whole thing,” not as a collection of its tiny part
perceive incomplete picture as complete
perceptual confirmation
We perceive and interpret ambiguous data to be in line with our expectations & beliefs€
the meaning we assign to stimuli
The process of understanding and giving meaning to that which we have just perceived; prior knowledge plays an integral role
a set of associations linked to a concept
Managing brand schemas
Salient associations should be favorable, unique
Extending schemas
Brand extensions
Brand alliances
repositioning - very difficult task
Comparison omission
omitting info in a claim to mislead
Piecemeal data
overall impression of individ statements misleading
Incidental learning
learning by accident
a form of learning based on association of a stimulus (info) and response (behavior or feeling)
classical conditioning
a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own
instrumental (operant) conditioning
the individual learns to perform
behaviors that produce positive outcomes and to avoid those that yield negative outcomes
determinants of classical conditioning?
-strength of conditioning
-contiguity (seen close together)
-blocking (UCS not associated w/ other stimuli)
-ordering of CS and UCS
-forward conditioning most effective (CS precedes UCS)
higher order conditioning, stimulus generalization
CS now becomes UCS...
when a positive outcome is removed
reinforcement schedules
fixed-interval reinforcement
variable-interval reinforcement, fixed-ratio reinforcement, variable-ratio reinforcement
utilitarian reinforcement
consistent good quality, rebates & coupons
hedonic reinforcement
store atmosphere, toy in a cereal box,
social reinforcement
reinforcement from reference group
sens -> STM
info enters in a way the the system will recognize (can be acoustic, visual, or semantic)
ST -> LT
integrate knowledge into memory
Can store episodic, procedural, or semantic memories
LT -> ST
access desired information
can be done via recognition or recall
sensory memory types
fleeting (1/4th -> several seconds), echoic (3-4 sec, and iconic (250 msec)
duration in STM is ___ seconds
2 types of LTM
episodic (autobiographical and semantic (meaning)
serial position of ad
1st 5: semantic LTM
last 6: acoustic STM
serial position matters b/c of ____ and _____ effects
primacy, recency
Organizing Principle
Categorization facilitates memory performance
Encoding-Specificity Principle
Contextual cue (match between encoding and retrieval of
Association Principle
Information nodes sharing a direct link (interrelated pieces of knowledge)
Activating a node in memory, often outside of awareness
Cognitive Learning
Occurs when information from STM stored in LTM
Integration between stimulus and knowledge
transfer of information from inactive LTM to active STM
Retrieval influenced by?
-strength of memory trace
-retrieval cues
-spreading activation
Strength of Elaboration influenced by?
-intentional learning (spelling list)
-incidental learning (reading book)
-individual factors (knowledge)
-environmental factors
failure to retrieve something from memory
Reasons for Failure to retrieve from LTM?
-decay theory (mem. grows weaker)
retroactive interference
learning new interferes with the memory of old
proactive interference
old knowledge interferes with ability to learn something new
part-list cueing effect
a partial list impedes ability to think of new items in that list
factors effecting retrieval?
-salience (von Restorff effect) (uniqueness - like Pringles can)
-redundant cues/repetition
-retrieval cues (brand names)
-pics vs. words