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60 Cards in this Set

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baseband vs broadband

The coaxial cable used in early Ethernet networks carried only a single digital signal (baseband). The coaxial cable used for cable Internet and television, in contrast, carries many analog signals at once (broadband). These cables use an F connector that screws on, making for a secure connection.

Coaxial Cable Types for Networking


In networking, ____________ is an unwanted interaction, or interference, between two electrical signals.

crosstalk

EXAM TIP:


For the exam, be sure to know the UTP category cable types and their associated transfer rates.


What is the fancy name for the gap between the real ceiling and the suspended tiles?

plenum



What is the official name of the RJ-45 connector?

8P8C

EXAM TIP:


For the exam, know the order of the wires in the T568A and T568B standards.


EXAM TIP:


Know which wires are switched in a crossover cable.

With a crossover cable, wires 1 and 2 (transmit) from one end of the cable are switched to the receive wire placeholders (wires 3 and 6) at the other end of the cable. In a Gigabit Ethernet cable, there are additional wires (4 & 7 and 5 & 8) crossed.

EXAM TIP:



The wavelength of a particular signal (laser, for example) refers to the distance the signal has to travel before it completes its particular shape and starts to repeat. The different colors of the laser signals feature different wavelengths.

EXAM TIP:

Remember that SMF is used to reach long distances whereas MMF transmits over shorter distances.

EXAM TIP:

The CompTIA Network+ exam competencies erroneously describe some media converters as single-mode fiber to Ethernet and multimode fiber to Ethernet. It's all Ethernet! Don't be surprised if you get one of those terms on the exam, however. Now you'll know what they mean!

EXAM TIP:

The CompTIA Network+ certification exam uses the two terms -- SSID and ESSID -- interchangeably. Concentrate on these two terms for the exam.

EXAM TIP:

Make sure you know the IEEE 802.11 wireless standards and their associated characteristics for the CompTIA Network+ exam.

EXAM TIP:

Near field communication (NFC) devices have a distance limitation of 5 cm, compared to Bluetooth's 10 meters and infrared's 1 meter.

EXAM TIP:

Cables are typically connected from the wall jack to the patch panel by a punch-down tool. A couple of standards deal with wiring patch panels: 66 block is used for wiring the telephone system, whereas 110 block is used to wire the patch panel for CAT 5/6 UTP cable.

Which of the following connector types is associated with fiber-optic cable?


a) RJ45


b) BNC


c) ST


d) RG-58

ST connectors are associated with fiber-optic cable.

Which of the following interconnections between devices requires a crossover cable?


a) PC to switch


b) switch to router


c) switch to switch


d) all of the above

A crossover cable is needed to reverse the transmit and receive pins between two switches (switch to switch).

Which of these standards uses multimode fiber cabling?


a) 10GBaseSR


b) 10GBaseLR


c) 10GBaseLW


d) 10GBaseER

The 10GBaseSR uses multimode fiber-optic cabling.

Which of the following connector types is associated with UTP cable and is considered a Physical-layer device?


a) RJ45


b) BNC


c) SC


d) NBC


e) USB 3.0

RJ45 connectors are associated with UTP cable and considered OSI Physical layer devices.

What name is given to the problem caused when signals from adjacent cables interfere with each other?


a) talkback


b) crossover


c) backchat


d) crosstalk

Crosstalk between adjacent cables causes interference.

Which one of these cable types is used to manage a router or switch rather then send Ethernet frames?


a) patch


b) straight-through


c) crossover


d) rollover

Rollover cables allow an administer to configure and manage a router and switch. They never connect into an NIC, and therefore never carry actual network traffic.

What are the names associated with cable used to connect to a patch panel and cable used to connect an MDF to an IDF?


a) horizontal and vertical cross-connect


b) rollover and loopback


c) 586A and 586B


d) crossover and crossunder

A patch cable that connects to the patch panel is called a horizontal cross-connect (HCC) cable. Cable that connects the MDF to the IDFs is called vertical cross-connect (VCC) cable.
What's the new wireless standard that only runs at the 5 GHz frequency range, with a maximum transfer rate of over 3 Gbps?
The 802.11ac standard is making its way into the wild, replacing 802.11n.
What device enables two or more Wi-Fi-enabled devices to connect each other wirelessly and connect to a wired network?
A wireless access point (WAP) enables wireless nodes to connect to both wireless and wired networks.
What feature of 802.11n enables devices to use multiple antennas to make multiple simultaneous connections and thus increase throughput?
Multiple in/multiple out (MIMO) is the 802.11n standard for using multiple antennas simultaneously.
What name is given to a network in which computers act as both clients and servers?

peer-to-peer network

What standard defines the hardware technology of modern LANs?

Ethernet

Which is the modern device that connects nodes of the same network together?
Switches replaced hubs as the connecting device for a single network.
What device enables LANs to connect and direct packets to the correct LAN?
A router connects LANs and directs packets to the correct LAN.
A protocol operating at which layer of the OSI model is responsible for logical addressing and routing?
A protocol operating at the Network layer provides addressing and routing functions.
A protocol operating at which layer of the OSI model handles the formatting of data so upper or lower layers can work with it further?
A protocol operating at the Presentation layer handles the formatting of data (among other functions).
Layer 3 is the __________ layer of the OSI model.

Network

At which layer of the TCP/IP model are UDP datagrams created?
The Transport layer is where datagrams can be found.
Which type of communication requires the client and server to acknowledge the transmission?
Connection-oriented communication requires the client and server to acknowledge the transmission.
At which layer of the TCP/IP model do cables fit?
Cabling is in the Link/Network Interface layer of the TCP/IP model.
Physical network cabling (copper and fiber) is also known as __________ _______.

bounded media

Radio frequency (RF), microwave, infrared, and satellite network links are known as __________ ______.

unbounded media

EXAM TIP:

Network media and connectors and the electrical signals traveling over them are represented by standards at layer 1 (the Physical layer) of the OSI seven-layer model.

EXAM TIP:

Coax is often preferred when connections need to run through elevator-shafts because it's resistant to radio and is much cheaper than fiber (discussed later in this chapter).

EXAM TIP:

The CompTIA Network+ exam uses the terms client/server topology to describe these two network arrangements. A topology more commonly refers to the way computers connect together rather than the roles they play on a network, but be prepared for the unusual use of the word on the exam.

EXAM TIP:

All nodes on a TCP/IP network have two addresses. The MAC address is the physical address of a computer on a LAN. The IP address enables communication across routers and thus between LANs as well as within LANs.

EXAM TIP:

The CompTIA Network+ exam expects you to know the layers by name, how they function in relation to each other, and what they represent.
Describe layer 1 of the OSI seven-layer model.

Layer 1: Physical Layer


The Physical layer of the OSI model defines the network standards relating to the electrical signals that travel the network cables, the connectors, and the media types (cables) themselves. This layer also determines the way that data is placed on the network media.

Describe layer 2 of the OSI seven-layer model.

Layer 2: Data Link Layer


The Data Link layer defines the rules for gathering and completing all the elements that make up a data frame and putting the whole thing together, so that it can be passed to a Physical-layer device. Switches exist at layer 2. This layer assembles frames, calculates the frame check sequence, and then the receiving end checks them. The layer also determines how data is placed on the wire using an access method. Divided into two sublayers, logical link control (LLC) and media access control (MAC).

Describe layer 3 of the OSI seven-layer model.

Layer 3: Network Layer


The Network layer is responsible for routing functions and logical addressing. The Network layer addresses identify not only a system, but also the network on which the system resides. The IP address in a TCP/IP network is a layer-3 address; routers use this address to determine to which network and node to send a packet.

Describe layer 4 of the OSI seven-layer model.

Layer 4: Transport Layer


The connection-oriented protocol is called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), and the connectionless protocol is called User Datagram Protocol (UDP). If TCP is used, the Transport layer breaks that data into chunks, adding port numbers, and sequence numbers, creating the TCP segment. It then hands the TCP segment to the Internet layer, which in turn creates the IP packet that encapsulates it. Because UDP doesn't require a response, UDP datagrams are not broken into chunks before being handed down to the Network layer, which creates the IP packet.

Describe layer 5 of the OSI seven-layer model.

Layer 5: Session Layer


The Session layer is responsible for the session setup. It also manages and terminates the data connections between programs on network devices. These sessions enable networked systems to exchange information.

Describe layer 6 of the OSI seven-layer model.

Layer 6: Presentation Layer


The Presentation layeris responsible for managing and translating the information into an understandable format that the Application layer can process further, taking datagrams and segments and turning them into formats a program can use.

Describe layer 7 of the OSI seven-layer model.

Layer 7: Application Layer


The Application layer represents the network-related program code and functions running on a computer system that either initiate or service the request. Note that the application layer does not refer to apps such as Outlook, instead it refers to the protocols or APIs on which thos programs relay; example, IMAP and SMTP are e-mail Application layer protocols.

EXAM TIP:

For the CompTIA Network+ exam, know that layer 2 is divided into two sublayers and is responsible for physical addressing. The device that works with a physical address (that is, the switch) runs at this layer.
EXAM TIP:
Examples of layer 4 protocols are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
EXAM TIP:
Examples of layer 3 protocols are Internet protocol (IP), IP addresses, and routers. An IP address is a layer-3 address; a MAC address is a layer-2 address.
EXAM TIP:
Port numbering is a form of addressing that gives each application a unique number between 1 and 65,535. HTTP uses port 80, for example.
A lot of techs and tech sites call the TCP/IP model the ________ _______.

Internet model

EXAM TIP:
At the Link layer, just about every network tech reverts back to the OSI model for troubleshooting. It's important to distinguish between problems happening at the Physical layer and problems that reflect the Data Link layer.
What is the first layer of the TCP/IP model?

Layer 1: Link/Network Interface Layer


The TCP/IP model lumps together the OSI model's layer 1 and layer 2 into a single layer called the Link layer (or Network Interface layer). Any part of the network that deals with frames is in the Link layer. The moment the frame information is stripped away from an IP packet, we move out of the Link layer and into the Internet layer.



What is the second layer of the TCP/IP model?

Layer 2: Internet Layer


The Internet layer maps directly to OSI's Network layer in function. It should really be called the "IP packet" layer. Any device or protocol that deals with pure IP packets sits in the Internet layer. IP addressing itself is also part of this layer, as are routers. IP packets are created at this layer.

What is the third layer of the TCP/IP model?

Layer 3: Transport Layer


The Transport layer maps directly to the OSI's Transport layer, in both function and name.

What is the fourth layer of the TCP/IP model?

Layer 4: Application Layer


The TCP/IP Application layer combines features of the top three layers of the OSI model. Every application must know how to initiate, control, and disconnect from a remote system, and each application has its own method.

EXAM TIP:
In reality, when looking at documentation or troubleshooting, the OSI model is the one that's almost always referenced. The TCP/IP protocols themselves should not be confused with the TCP/IP model. The protocols in the TCP/IP suite have essentially been mapped to the existing layers of the OSI model.