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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pre-modern view as a source of everyday knowledge
ancestors assumed that they saw things as they really were. STAY OUT OF THAT TREE OR YOU’LL TURN INTO A TOAD! A dandelion cannot be beautiful or hideous; it has to be one or the other.
Modern view as a source of everyday knowledge
a dandelion is simply a dandelion. It is a plant with yellow petals and green leaves.
Postmodern view as a source of everyday knowledge
spirits don’t exist. Dandelion does not exist. There is no answer to “what does the book really look like?” All we can offer is the different ways it looks from different points of view.
Theory and social science
deals with the logical aspects of science; providing systematic explanations.
Data analysis and social science
looks for patterns in observations and compares what is logically expected with what is actually observed.
Social scientists are interested in
explaining human totalness
Gender is a______ whereas male and female are its ______
Variable and attributes
Three major purposes of social research
exploration; description; and explanation.
Ethical issues may rule out
certain research procedures
Nomothetic explanations present
a generalized understanding of many cases
Idiographic explanations present
specific cases fully
We learn about probability and cause and effect. Desire for prediction
but can we understand the results? Why is college worth your time? Lucky streaks?
You come to class; take notes; take an exam; this routine is the way it is because of
What is the drawback of tradition
resistance of doing things a different way. Can make people less likely to look for better ways to do or learn things. Can make us resistant to new ideas.
What are the limitations of depending on authority
they can be wrong too. Hitler and the Nazi party; he was wrong.
We have one experience and we turn it into a general rule is called
We reinforce what we already know (or think we do) is called
inaccurate and accurate observations. Liberal parents may not watch FOX news.
Some of the problems with non scientific beliefs are
based on limited knowledge; tend to believe what is in our own minds is the truth; intuitive thinking (it just makes sense); cognitive consistency (we go with things are that consistent with our beliefs); authorities can make mistakes; times and conditions may change so thinking has t be self correcting
So what is "real"
we live in a state of naivety most of the time. We don't think that the chair we sit in is made up of atoms and polymers and etc.
What is universal and what is relative in human experience is known as
Observable patterns in social behavior are called
social regularities. Not often trivial. Exceptions often do prove the rule.
Law of parsimony
keeping it simple. What can we throw out and still explain what we're seeing?
can what you've seen be seen by someone else? Major strength of science- self correcting
does our study have meaning in another context?
points from which to view. Provide ways of looking at life and are grounded in sets of assumptions about the nature of reality.
Theories are
sets of interrelated statements to explain aspect of social life. Flesh out and specify paradigms. Explains what we see.
universal generalizations about classes of facts. Law of gravity
basic building blocks of theory. Abstract elements representing classes of phenomena within the field of study.
Peer group
people who you hang around with and identify with
comprises a set of attributes
fundamental principle, taken to be true, on which a theory is grounded.
specific conclusions derived from axiomatic groundwork
specified testable expectation about empirical reality that follows from a more general proposition.
Numbers hold symbolic value
articulate identity or to justify or oppose military intervention
Instrumental value
plan for needed social services
Numbers are often posed as truth
asserted as evidence to support particular arguments.
The way we interpret and make sense of numbers depends on
the context in which we live
Numerical literacy
able to criqiue and make thoughtful decisions
Numbers serve to
communicate authority and to establish legitimacy
We can use numbers in research without assuming
that they represent an objective reality superior to other ways of understanding our world.
Premise of quantitative empirical investigation
created data should be seen as equivalent across research subjects.
Intrinsic value
number seventeen has no meaning in isolation.
Theories flesh out
paradigms. They are how we explain the world around us...limited by the worldview in play..
a testator question that fleshes out theory. .
theory to observation. Start with a problem or question. Is TV viewing related to stereotyping? When we Know a lot about the subject.
observation to generalization. Used when there is not a lot of prior research done on topic
What two values can numbers have
Symbolic value....used to justify a course of action and Instrumental value as an aid to planning.
Value of numbers is determined by
our codes of communication and our methods for evaluating research.
numbers as subjective accounts
when there are discrepancies between numbers and counts the possibility of perspective arises
numbers as interconnecting realities
where the meaning, value, and significance of numbers are negotiated through communication
numbers as objective truths
facts not to be questioned
Numbers can be collected and statistically presented reflect the interests of an
institution..business..or similar entities. .
A society that possesses numerical value knows how to
critique research
Example of zadroga bill
Instrumental value: numbers help lawmakers and health workers calculate what funds will be needed to cover the health costs of first responders.

Symbolic value: numbers represent the further extent of loss on 9/11
2010 census as an example
the value of being counted. Instrumental value of this is to improve the country and meet demands in areas where the population may have increased. It means to symbolically represented in America's society. .
What kinds of research gets done is affected by
funding and funding priorities...institutional review boards....research trends or emphases at the time.
Evaluating reported research: who produced the research
researchers home institutions..funding agencies...permission...granting institutions (IRB...research sites). .
Evaluating reported research: what was the purpose of the research
academic...evaluative...commercial...theoretical. What were the research questions and hypothesis? What contribution does the research make? .
Evaluating reported research: who participated in the research
how were people included or excluded? Study size?.
Primary responsibilities of researchers
accuracy and adhering to regulations about research .
only report what you've found...take steps to correct mistakes if they have been published...allow replication of results .
Nuremberg code
holocaust doctors experimenting on Jews...present day doctors looked through the records to see if they could use some of the information obtained from the previous experiments.
Tuskegee syphilis experiment
brave group of veterans from WWII that came back from war with syphilis...soon penicillin was cure for syphilis...treatment was withheld from them to see if black men died differently from this disease than white men.
Mil gram experiment
how did regular Germans get caught up in the killings in WWII? Electric shocks to see how far regular people will go to go with what they were being told to do. Problem because the person being researched was put under great stress. Shift in research ethics in 1990s
Ethical issue: voluntary participation
people can't be coerced into participating in research. Subjects have to be free to leave without fear of retribution. Rewards or incentives can be ethical.
Informed Consent
prospective research participants must be fully informed about the procedures and risks involved in research before consenting to participate
Do No Harm
participants should not be at risk of harm as a result of participating
right to privacy
confidentiality vs anonymity
deceptions studies permitted during
medical studies and conformity studies
ensure that participants leave the research project with at least as much self-esteem and low anxiety that they came with
only report what you've found. Take steps to correct mistakes if they have been published. Allow replication of results.
Informed consent must include
purpose of research and expected duration and included procedures.
participants are as sued that identifying information will not be shared with anyone but other researchers involved in the study.
participant will remain anonymous throughout study-even to the researcher.
How do we ensure that researchers take the needs of participants into consideration
institutional review boards.
Purpose of IRB
determine risk in study...monitor informed consent and voluntary participation.
IRB and specially protected groups
children...adults not competent to consent...immigrants...employees or students...pregnant women...prisoners.
When do you not need informed consent
when research is not reasonably expected to cause distress or harm...the study involves normal observation of public behavior.
Deception studies
can only be conducted if this is the only justifiable way to conduct the study. Can't be used to cause physical or psychological pain. Must be explained asap. Participants can withdraw once debriefed.