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56 Cards in this Set

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What is elaboration?
1. The amount of thinking the receiver engages in about the content of the message. Can be thought of as a continuum ranging from not thinking at all about the content of the message to extensive thinking about the message
1. What are the two routes of processing described in the ELM?
-central route (high elaboration and high cognitive energy)
-peripheral route ( low elaboration and peripheral cues)
1. What are the four different receiver characteristic categories?
-Psychological
-Physiological
-Demographic
-Environmental
1. What are the three different types of involvement?
-Value relevant involvement- (ego involvement/core values of receiver)
-Outcome relevant-(how relevant message is to receiver)
-Impression Relevant-(receivers desire to express attitudes that are socially desirable/peer pressure/asch experiment)
1. Which levels of self-esteem, self-monitoring, intelligence, involvement and need for cognition are conducive to effective persuasion?
-Moderate levels of all
1. Which are the commonly used demographic receiver characteristics?
sex, age, intelligence and culture
- What are subliminal messages?
-awareness is below the conscious
1. What are supraliminal messages?
-conscious awareness
How do you define Persuasion?
1. Persuasion involves symbolic communication between two or more persons with intent to change, reinforce, or shape attitudes, beliefs, and/or behaviors
1. What are the important characteristics of persuasion?
Persuasion:
-is a type of communication using a shared symbol system
-requires intent
-doesn’t have to be successful to be considered persuasion
-involves two or more persons
1. Distinguish between communication, persuasion, influence, coercion, education and propaganda.
-communication: one person stimulates meaning in the mind(s) of another person(s) through verbal and nonverbal messages
-Coercion: social influence that involves force or threat of force
-Propaganda: mass audience, purpose of achieving goals to persuade, involves emotional appeal, concealment of purpose, lack of sound support
-Education: provide info with a neutral intent
-influence: refers to power that affects something
-use of communication to intentionally change, reinforce or shape another’s attitudes, beliefs and/ or behaviors.
1. How do you define attitude and what are the important characteristics of attitudes?
a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.
Attitudes:
-involve effect
-are always tied to an object
-tend to be consistent
-are a predisposition of behavior (seed of the fruit)
-are learned
1. Define and give examples of:
• Ego defensive function of attitudes
• Value expressive function of attitudes
• Knowledge function of attitudes
• Utilitarian function of attitudes

- social adjustive
ego defensive function- attitudes that are held to help people protect their sense of self and prevent the need to face unpleasant realities(ie racism or soccer sucks)

Value Expressive function- attitudes that allow people to express values that are important to them (political choice based on core values such as religion or environment)

Knowledge function- attitudes that help people understand the world around them(our evaluation of teachers or bill gates)

Utilitarian function-attitudes that benefit individuals by allowing them to avoid negative consequences and achieve positive outcomes((students like +- grading scale better cause it helps their gpa in the long run)

Social-adjustive function-attitudes held to help us better relate to the people around us(adopting attitudes of your peer group to have a conversation/ie buckeye football)
1. Give examples of prescriptive, descriptive and evaluative beliefs
presriptive- students should go to school
descriptive-the sky is blue
evaluative- mary is a good citizen based on the criteria for a good citizen (evaluative)
1. How are attitudes formed through:
• Classical conditioning
• Operant conditioning
• Modeling
classical-pairing(ie pavlovs dog bell and dinner experiment)

operant-reinforcement and punishment.(ie chocolate given and sprayed with water)

learn by observing others (ie children learn by following parents)
1. What are the measurement factors that influence the attitude-behavior relationship?
Action
target
context
time
1. What is meant by perceived behavioral control? How does it affect the behavior?
-refers to a persons perception of the level of control he or she has over the behavior; stop smoking but believing you are capable
1. How do direct experience and vested interest affect the attitude-behavior relationship?
direct experience- had a direct experience

indirect-learned secondhand
1. How does cognitive processing affect the attitude-behavior relationship?
some we think about regularly some in the back of our mind
1. Define attitude accessibility and relevance. How do they affect the attitude-behavior relationship?
top of the mind thought (accesibility)
must be relevant to that persons behavior
1. What is the difference between individuated, deindividuated and scripted situations? How does each affect the attitude-behavior link?
individuate- core beliefes, take more resonsibility

deindividuated-more anonimity less focus on internal issues-shared responsibility

scripted situations-automatic-ie brushing teeth cause its good for you
1. The different types of scales: Likert, Semantic Differential scale, Thurstone scale.
thurstone-consist of several items each represent a different level of favorableness or unfavorableness toward the attitude object

likert scale- several statements in which participant indicates level of agreement

semantic differentiation scale- attitude of an object compared to another one
1. What is an attitudinal anchor?
the position on an issue that a person finds acceptable
1. What are the latitudes of acceptance, rejection and non-commitment?
acceptance-range you find acceptable
reject-ones you reject
non committed- nuetral
1. What are the assimilation and contrast effects? Why are they described as perceptual effects?
assimilating-the side we agree with
contrasting-the side we dont

perceptual- our preexisting attitudes which ones we assimilate and contrast with
1. What is ego-involvement and how does it affect the persuasion process?
a persons commitment toward an issue related to persons self concept or self esteem ; narrows a persons loa and broadens lor, increases contrasting and assimilating effects
1. How much discrepancy should be there between a source’s persuasive message and the audience’s preferred position?
gear your message more toward the audiences attitude/ compromise
1. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the social judgment theory?
strengths-provide info on how attitude changes over time, explains how and why messages can backfire (boomerang effect), has persuasion requirements, stresses you should know your audience, helps us understand how audience processes persuasive messages and why two people of the same attitude can have different behaviors

weaknesses-hard to access each individual lor lnc and loa, doesnt provide what happens in lnc,the ordered alternatives questionairre is non realistic, doesnt address how message should be constructed
1. What are the similarities and differences between the balance theory, congruity theory and the cognitive dissonance theory?
balance- person p, person o, object x
congruity- balance theory (ie tiger woods and nike)
cognitive dissonance- dissonance consonance and irrelevance

all involve changing or not changing attitudes to change how objects or persons are viewed
1. What are the limitations of the balance theory and the congruity theory? How does the cognitive dissonance theory overcome these limitations?
balance- inability to predict unbalanced triangle, unrealistic positive negative change,
congruity- limited application, inability to explain when correction factor kicks in

cog dissonance includes breadth of situations constant support from research and can be applied in multiple contexts
1. What are cognitions? What kinds of relationships can exist between cognitions?
bits of knowledge we have stored in our minds;dissonant, consonant or irrelevant relations
1. What is the magnitude of dissonance?
amount of dissonance a person experiences
1. What are the different options for reducing dissonance? How do they operate?
changing behavior, changing importance/ration of dissonant elements through denial, bolstering, transcendence or differentiation
1. What are the necessary conditions for cognitive dissonance to occur?
compliance, hypocrisy, decision making, and effort justification
1. What are the strengths and the weaknesses of the cognitive dissonance theory?
strengths- can be applied in many contexts, research support is consistent, applied to multiple contexts

weaknesses- how dissonance will be resolved and how to control it, it is too good to be true cause every theory needs a limitation
1. What types of behavior do we have volitional control over?
ones that we choose,
1. What are the three factors that influence the intention-behavior relationship?
volition, correspondence, time of measurement
2. What are behavioral beliefs, belief strength and belief evaluation? How do these relate to attitudes?
b.beliefs-beliefs about behavior we view most important
b.strenght-how strongly we hold a behavioral belief
b.evaluation-how we feel about each of our behavioral beliefs

behavior is the outcome of any attitude
3. Defined the three factors that affect the subjective norm: salient others, normative beliefs and motivation to comply.
salient others-important people
normative beliefs-person beliefs about what salient others want him or her to do regarding their behavior, motivation to comply-how willing the audience will go along with what the salient others want them to do
4. What are the strategies for changing a person’s subjective norm?
add new normative beliefs, change existing normative beliefs, change motivation to comply
5. What does the Theory of Reasoned Action direct persuaders to do when attempting to change an audience’s behavior?
to first access their audiens 's beliefs and then develop persuasive messages based on those beliefs
6. What does the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) add to the model of Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)?
included percieved behavioral control in the formula to predict behavioral intentions
8. What are the strengths and limitations of TPB and TRA?
s- they are reciever oriented, able to explain the cause of behavior, able to predict behavior, provide persuaders with a measure of control over audience

weakeness-
exclusion of behavior not under volitional control, focus only on specific behaviors
1. What are controls beliefs?
beliefs about the likelihood of having opportunities and resources necessary to perform the behavior and the frequency that a control factor will occur
1. What other factors beyond the dimensions of credibility, affect the credibility judgments?
safety, qualifications, dynamism
1. What is the sleeper effect? How does it function?
persistence of source credibility, high credibility goes down throughout time and low credibility goes up but they go in the middle
1. What theoretical and methodological issues affect source credibility research?
fixed ethos and the congruity hypothesis, assumed versus measured,topic oriented or topic irrelevance,average versus individual measures, audience analysis
1. How do emotional appeals differ from logical appeals?
logic relies on logic appeal and emotional on emotion
1. What are the four components that a fear appeal must have to be effective?
personally relevant, significant threat,outline recommendations, description of threat
1. Why does a person have fear-control response to a fear appeal?
it is a way to eliminate the fear if it relates to you, emotional response
1. Why does a person have a danger-control response?
cognitive response
1. How does a one-sided message differ from a two-sided message?
two sided tells both of the sids of argument
1. What are the two types of two sided messages? Which one is more effective?
refutational and non refutational, refutational cause it stays focused more on your argument then just the other side
1. What are the strengths of statistical and narrative evidence?
stat-based on many cases provides more info
narrative-more vivid and personable
1. What are the two characteristics of intense language?
emotional intensity, linguistic specificity
1. What are the two types of forewarnings?
topic and positioning forewarning
persuasive intent forewarning