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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
mass media
a medium of communication that is designed to reach the mass of people
illustrate abstract notional regarding communication behavior and explain theories; a graphic means of explicating the understanding of an abstract process such as communications
Shannon-Weaver Model
described the process of telecommunication (1940s)
Westley-MacLean Model
differs from the S-W Model in that it includes mechanisms for feedback and gatekeeping (1950s)
Schramm interactive model
emphasizes the sharing of information between communicators, who give and receive information interactively (1950s)
OTA transactional model
separates communication into 3 distinct processes: message formulation, message interpretation, and message exchange -- and emphasizes the interdependence of the process
comstock psychological model
describes certain mental processes that occur while watching television (1978)
thorson cognitive processing model
concentrates on teh steps taken in the processing of tv commercials
media system dependency model
focuses on the relationships between the mass media entity (information system) and society itself (social system) (1976)
a linear/empirical relationship between variables A & B
3 criteria for causation
1) correlation
2) time order (A must cause B)
3) all 3rd variables that could account for relationship b/w A and B must be eliminated
moderating variable
variables that affects the strength of a relationship b/w A & B
mediating variable
they account for the relationship b/w A & B
social cognitive theory
describes the mental processes at work whenever a person learns
social learning theory
explains behavior by examining how cognitive, behavioral, & environmental factors interact
triadic reciprocal causation
thought & behavior are determined by 3 different factors that influence each other

1) behavior
2) personal characteristics (cognitive/biological qualities)
3) environmental factors/events
abstract modeling
new situations generate new behaviors based upon the rules of behavior learned previously
inhibitory effects
occur whenever new information or the observation of new behavior inhibits or restrains a person from acting in a previously learned way
disinhibitory effects
disinhibit/life previously learned internal restraints on certain behaviors
moral justification
occurs whenever a person believes his/her otherwise culpable actions are serving some moral, noble, or higher purpose and are therefor justified
advantageous comparison
involves comparing one's own deplorable actions to more serious or flagrant transgression of others
euphemistic labeling
offers not only a means of camouflaging reprehensible conduct, but may even make the conduct respectable or at least acceptable
displacement of responsibility
occurs when someone in authority directs a person to act in a certain reprehensible way, and the authority figure accepts responsibility for the actions
diffusion of responsibility
a transgressor acts within a group and therefor doesn't feel personally responsible for the subsequent act
disregard or distortion of the consequences of action
refers to situations in which a person performs an act without thinking about the harm that act may cause, or with the belief that the act will cause only minimal harm
occurs whenever a person ins divested of human qualities and considered no better than a beast
attribution of blame
blame other people for "provoking" one to hostile acts
social construction of reality
m.e. phenomenon in which heavy viewing of TV tends to shape or cultivate viewers' perceptions and beliefs so that they're more in line with the world portrayed on tv than that of the real world
research tradition associated with effects related to the social construction of reality
random selection
random people chosen from population for study
random assignment
from those selected, randomly choose what variables assigned to them
scientific method
1) hypothesis
2)design experiment/study
3)confront hypothesis w/ data through a statistical test
4) communicate the results
has been studied many times; data is consistent and reliable
cross-sectional survey
longitudinal survey
over extended period of time
trend (longitudinal survey)
people from population selected; survey over time but different people; same issue
panel (longitudinal survey)
interviewing exact same individuals over time
cohort (longitudinal survey)
track over times with people of the same group but not the same individuals (have something in common, usually having to do with time)
a popular area of media efects research based upon psychological principles of information processing by means of cognitive components; occurs when exposure to mediated communication activates related thoughts that have been stored in the mind of an audience member
intervening variables
variables that strengthen the cause-effect relationship when present
pseudo reality
perception is more important that reality in understanding human thought, emotion, and behavior
the reflection myth
we think the media reflect the real world
third person effect
belief that media have a stronger effect on other people than on oneself
ABCs of media effects
affect, behavior, cognition
emotions, moods, attitudes
action, responses
beliefs, intentions, values
the black box
stimulus ==> inside organism ==>response
common sense/folk wisdom
something that is true b/c it is self-evident or b/c it is widely known
hindsight bias
knew-it-all-along phenomenon; the tendency, after an event has occurred, to overestimate one's ability to have foreseen the outcome
an act of revealing or communicating divine truth; something that is revealed by God to humans; a sudden good idea
truth is established through a trusted source such as God, government, tradition, or public sanction
logic and reason
a way of "knowing"
conjunction error
tendency for people to see an event as more likely as it becomes more specific b/c it is joined w/ elements that seem similar to events that are likely; actual likelihood of an event being true declines when it becomes more specific b/c additional elements must also be true in order for overall event to be true
an educated guess
goals of science
explanation, prediction, control
theoretical stimulus
the conceptual variable that stimulates or causes an effect
theoretical response
the conceptual variable that is affected by the theoretical stimulus
operational definition
a definition of a theoretical concept that is stated in terms of observable operations, procedures, and measurements
independent variable
the variable the researcher controls
dependent variable
the variable whose value is presumed to "depend" upon the independent variable
what makes a theory good?
predictive accuracy, internal consistency, economy, fertility
predictive accuracy
it can reliably predict behavior
internal consistency
there are no logical inconsistencies among the constructs
it only contains needed constructs
it spawns other research
correlational study
random assignment not possible; researcher cannot manipulate the independent variable; researcher simply measures the strength of relationship between the two variable of interest; can't infer causality
random assignment not possible; researcher must take people as they are
margin of error of 3%
sample of 1200
content analysis
describes in a systematic manner the content of the communication
perfect positive correlation
perfect negative correlation
small correlation
+- .1
medium correlation
+- .3
large correlation
+- .5
the same result is observed over and over again by different researchers
employing different methodologies in order to examine a given phenomenon
a literature review that combines the statistical results (e.g. correlations) from different studies conducted on the same topic
powerful effects
1920-30s; 1980s-Present
magic bullet/hypodermic-needle model
media effects are powerful, immediate, direct, and uniform
limited effects
moderate effects
a short-term process in which children immediately mimic whatever they see
social learning theory; most likely to adopt modeled behavior if:
1) model is similar to the observer
2) model has admired status
3) model is rewarded
4)behavior has functional value
distinct cognitive capacities
symbolizing capacity, self-reflective capacity, self-regulatory capacity, vicarious capacity
symbolizing capacity
symbols are vehicle of thought and can be used to store, process, and transform experiences for mental processes' used to represent objects, thoughts, ideas
self-reflective capacity
people perform a self-check to make sure his or her thinking is correct
refers to the self's capacity to alter its own responses
vicarious capacity
people learn by observing others
four component processes
attention, retention, motor reproduction, motivation
people can't learn much by observation unless they attend to the significant features of the modeled behavior
modeled behavior must be remembered or retained in order to be used again
motor reproduction (production)
individuals have to have the physical abilities and skills to replicate the action
belief that one can perform the behavior
socially learned behaviors may not be enacted unless one is motivated
storage bin model
recency emphasized
storage battery model
frequency emphasized
synapse view model
recently primed concept have stronger effect for a limited period of time; frequently primed concepts have a stronger effect over a long period of time; time emphasized
variables that enhance priming effects
perceived meaning (intent), perceived justifiability, character identification, perceived reality, memories of prior experiences