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107 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Speech Communication

human process through which we make sense out of the world and share that sense with others


process whereby humans collectively create and regulate social reality

A thing

a static object, bound in time, and unchanging

A process

moving, it has no beginning and no end, and it is constantly changing

Communication process

active, continuous, and flowing; never the same from one minute to the next


an approved social identity, that aspects of ourselves that we present to others for their approval

Communicative competence

the ability to communicate in a personally effective and socially appropriate manner

Performative competence

that part of communication competence that can be seen; the actual performance of day-to-day behavior

Process competence

the cognitive activity and knowledge that allows individuals to generate performative competence; everything we know in order to communicate competently

Implicit knowledge

Knowledge that we don't have to think about, that we use unconsciously to guide our behavior

message competence

the ability to make message choices that others can comprehend as well as to attend to and understand message choices of others

verbal competence

the ability to process and use linguistic devices to convey content in effective ways

nonverbal competence

the ability to process and use nonverbal codes to convey content in effective ways

Listening competence

the ability to process and understand the messages that are sent to us

interpretive competence

the ability to label, organize, and interpret the conditions surrounding an interaction

role competence

the ability to take on social roles; knowing what is appropriate behavior for a given position

self competence

the ability to choose and present a desired self-image

goal competence

the ability to set goals, anticipate probable consequences, and choose effective lines of communication


that set of values and beliefs, norms and customs, rules and codes, that socially define groups of people


the tendency to avoid scheduling specific appointments but instead to rely on cell phone communication to make and revise plans

process perspective

becoming aware of what's going on when you communicate, and beginning to recognize how the underlying processes involved in communication manifest themselves in everyday performance

situational approach

the belief that interpersonal communication occurs whenever two people are in face-to-face interaction regardless of the intimacy of that interaction; under the situational approach, an interaction between a clerk and a customer

developmental approach

the belief that interpersonal communication occurs only when the interaction between two people occurs at the psychological level; under this approach, an interaction between a clerk and a customer would not count as interpersonal, but an interaction between longtime romantic partners would

intrapersonal communication

one-person communication; examples include daydreaming, fantasizing, and thinking through a problem

interpersonal communication

dyadic communication that takes place whenever two individuals, sharing the roles of sender and receiver, become connected through the mutual activity of creating meaning; examples include two friends chatting, and argument between brother and sister, and a professor and student discussing grades.

dyadic communication

two-person communication; another name for interpersonal communication

small-group communication

communication among three or more individuals in which each member knows every member and can interact freely with all others- for example, student working together on a group project

organizational communication

communication in a complex organization such as a business or industry; interaction flows through formal and informal channels; examples include communication from managers to subordinates at IBM and communication in the Army.

face-to-face public communication

one-to-many communication, in which a speaker addresses an audience; a presidential candidate addressing national convention and an evangelistic delivering a sermon are examples

mediated public (or mass) communication

communication to a large, anonymous audience in which a channel is interposed between sender and receiver; examples include a nightly news broadcast, a radio advertisement, and a novel

cultural level data

information made available to all members of culture

sociological level data

information made available only to people who share group membership

psychological level data

personal information shared between two people; information that is deeper and more intimate than that at the cultural or sociological level

relationships as constellations of behavior

the belief that relationships consist of and can best be understood by looking at what people do when they are together

relationships as cognitive constructs

the belief that relationships are a product of the ways we label and think about them that they can be understood by examining the cognitive schemata that describe them

relationships as mini-cultures

the belief that people in relationships create unique understandings and values that constitute their relational culture and that one can best understand a relationship by uncovering the nature of this culture

relationships as collections of contradictory forces

the belief that relationships can be defined by the ways in which partners view and resolves dialectical tensions

dialectical approach

an approach to understanding interaction that focuses on uncovering the contradictory forces that pull interactants in opposite directions and looking at ways these forces are resolved

memory organization packets (MOPs)

memories of what has happened in a relationship; MOPs help us stabilize and define the relationship

relational prototype

a mental guide that specifies what a certain ind of relationship should be like; consists of label, criterial attributes, and communicative indicators

natural language label

part of a relational prototype; the name that identifies a relationship

criterial attributes

par of relational prototype; the attributes that must be present for a certain kind of relationship to exist- for example, trustworthiness and loyalty might be attributes contained in the relational prototype of friendship

communicative indicators

part of a relational prototype; the actual behaviors connected to criterial attributes- for example, if one of the criteria attributes of the relational prototype for friendship is being trustworthy, then keeping secrets would be a communicative indicator


when outside environmental influences affect what happens between partners in a relationship- for example, when a spouse allows tensions from the office affect behavior at home

private relationships

relationships that are close and personal; in such a relationship, members are irreplaceable and interdependent; knowing is particular, rules are individualistic, the tone is sentimental, and rewards are intrinsic

public relationships

relationships that are formal and distant; in such a relationship, members are substitutable and autonomous; knowing is universal, rules are normative, the tone is practical, and rewards are extrinsic

content messages

one of the two kinds of messages conveyed whenever we speak; content messages refer directly to the topic of the conversation; in contrast, relational messages tell our partners how we view our relationship to them

relational messages

messages, often unstated, that indicate ones feelings about and satisfaction with a relationship; messages about dominance, trust and closeness are examples


the process of building and maintaining healthy relationships

minimal competence

the lowest level of role competence, in which partners act out roles in traditional ways

satisfactorily competent

the middle of the role competence, in which partners are able to change some role behaviors but are not able to work out problems in creative ways by creating new roles

optimal competence

the highest level of role competence in which people know when to adapt to social roles and when not to; those who are optimally competent handle relational problems creatively and effectively

analogic codes

a code that is made up of signs that convey meaning by being like the concept they convey- for example, a smile conveys happiness by its natural connection to being happy

digital codes

a code that is made up of discrete symbols- for example, the word happy is a series of sounds that has come, through convention, to convey the abstract idea of happiness; there is no natural connection between the sounds and the idea


the smallest meaningful element of speech, often, but not always, equivalent to a word


language at the level of the word; semantic rules specify the elements that give words meaning

denotative meaning

meaning that is conventionalized; the dictionary definition of a concept

connotative meaning

personal, often emotionally charged meaning that goes beyond denotation


language at the level of the sentence or utterance; syntactic rules allow individuals to combine words to create well-formed utterances

speech act

what an individual is doing during speech; it is roughly equivalent to the speaker's intention or purpose, although it is possible that a speaker may not be consciously aware of the implications of a speech act

constitutive rule

in CMM theory, a rule that allows communicators to translate content into speech acts and speech acts into content

regulative rule

in CMM theory, a rule that tells communicators how to appropriate a given speech act is in a given context


one of the contexts identified in CMM theory, it refers to the situation in which an interaction occurs


one of the contexts identified in CMM theory, it refers to the kind of relationship that exists between communicators

life script

a relatively fixed way of thinking about the self and relating to others that is organized around general themes for living one's life; in CMM theory, it refer to the self-images of the participants

cultural patterns

one of the contexts identified in CMM theory, it refers to the cultural norms that govern communication

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

the idea that there is a relationship between language, thought, and action; consists of two propositions, linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity

linguistic determinism

the proposition that language affects thought

linguistic relativity

the proposition that people who speak different languages experience the world differently

elaborated code

a language code associated with middle-class speakers; its primary use is to convey information; meanings are explicitly coded into words

restricted code

a language code associated with working-class speakers, it is often used to create social solidarity; it does not put all of the meaning it conveys into words; instead, it assumes that listeners will pick up information from context

critical theorists

theorists who believe that there is a power dimension to language such that groups that control language also control thought and action

muted-group theorists

theorists who argue that subordinate groups are often silenced, especially when the way they use language is defined as trivial or subordinate


a culture's orientation toward fundamental concepts such as God, human nature, morality, and other philosophical issues

control cultures

cultures that hold that people can control their own destinies; opposite of constraint cultures

constraint cultures

cultures that hold the people have very little control over their lives and that events are controlled by external sources such as fate; opposite of control cultures

doing cultures

cultures in which people's self-worth is measured by their ability to accomplish tasks; opposite of being cultures

being cultures

cultures in which people's self-worth is measured by their ability to maintain relationships; opposite of doing cultures

M-time cultures

cultures that are monochronic; people segment and organize time in a linear way

P-time cultures

cultures that are polychromic; people have a more holistic attitude towards time; several tasks may be undertaken at the same time; clock time is relatively unimportant

individualist cultures

"I" cultures; the basic unit is the individual working in his or her own best interest

collectivist cultures

"we" cultures; the basic unit is the group; and individuals sacrifice for the group

horizontal individualism

an individualist culture in which people are relatively equal in status

vertical individualism

an individualist culture in which there are status differences among members

horizontal collectivism

a collectivist culture in which people are relatively equal is status

vertical collectivism

a collectivist culture in which there are status differences among members

low-context cultures

cultures which most meaning is conveyed explicitly in words; context is not as important as verbal communication, and accuracy and directness are prized

high-context cultures

cultures in which context is shared and is an important source of information; indirectness and subtlety are prized

effort optimism

the idea that if people work hard, they can achieve their goals

American English (AE)

refers to language practices of the current dominant ethnic group in America (whites of European ancestry)

African-American Vernacular English (AAVE)

a form of English associated with members of predominantly African-American communities; it has a well-developed grammar; many linguistics argue that AAVE incorporates some aspects of Niger-Congo African patterns

call-and-response pattern

a characteristic of AAVE in which a speaker's statements (or calls) are punctuated by responses from the listener

intercultural communication

communication between members of groups who have been taught a different set of understandings about the world


a negative social attitude held by members of one groups towards members of another


a generalized evaluation of a stimulus object

in-group members

people who share a common group identity

out-group members

a person who comes from a different social group

negative interpretation

a cognitive bias that consists of seeing everything that out-group members do as negative


a cognitive bias that consists of dismissing anything positive done by an out-group member as an exception

fundamental attribution error

a cognitive bias that consists of interpreting another's negative behavior as internal or dispositional rather than external


a cognitive bias that consists of seeing negative behaviors by out-group members as more extreme than they actually are


a cognitive bias that consists of magnifying differences between in-group and out-group communicaiton


the belief that one's own culture is better than any other

assumed similarity

a barrier to cross-cultural understanding in which individuals refuse to recognize true differences between groups

republican mother

the idea, prevalent in the 19th century, that the goal of the mother was to instill patriotism and create good citizens


an ideal behavior valued during the nineteenth century; character consists of qualities like thrift, hard work, duty, self-sacrifice, good deeds, integrity, and a spotless reputation


1) an ideal of the twentieth century, consisting of qualities that make one stand out in a crowd, and appear friendly and personable
2) the organized, enduring, and characteristic ways that an individual is predisposed to behave; often assumed to be innate