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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cultivation hypothesis
proposes that over time, heavy viewers of television develop views of the world similar to what they see on television
institutional process analysis
examines the production, management, and distribution of media messages
message system analysis
involved the investigation of images in the media content, such as gender roles, portrayal of minorities, and the way certain occupations are depicted
assumes that dominant sets of beliefs, values, and practices exist within cultures
occurs when real-world events support the distorted image of reality shown on television
the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system
as idea, practice, or object perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption
diffusion of innovations theory
states that an innovation diffuses/spreads throughout society in a predictable pattern (an s-shaped curve)
critical mass
the point when adoption of an innovation takes off, when the greatest number of people begin to adopt it, and the dramatic upward line on the s-shaped curve begind its ascent
adopter categories
the classifications of individuals within a social system on the basis of innovativeness
venturesome and ready to try new things
early adopters
integral in local society and are thus sought out for information about innovations, and their advice is highly valued
early majority
prefers to deliberate before its members make a decision to adopt; serve the function of legitimizing an innovation
late majority
skeptical and cautious about the benefits of adoption
tied to the part, traditional way of doing things and very reluctant to try something new
belief in one's own abilities
McQuail's organization of common needs for media
information, personal identity, integration, entertainment
uses and gratifications
assumes that individual differences among audience members cause each person to seek out different messages, use those messages differently, and respond to them differently because messages from mm are but ont of many social or psychological factors that cause audience members to select different media fare as well as to experience divergent if not idiosyncratic media effects
uses and dependency model
proposes that certain elements in a media system cause people to use and depend upon the media
the importance placed upon particular issues
agenda setting
a type of communication effect in which these is a strong link between news stories and public issue salience
control over the flow of news information by media professionals
exists in addition to the actual environment
agenda building
differs from agenda setting primarily in its allowance for the collective influence of and reciprocity between public and media in setting the agenda
theory of cognitive dissonance
cognitive dissonance occurs when attitude and action become inconsistent with one another; this inconsistency causes the person anxiety that must be resolved; to resolve it, one must bring the attitude in line with the actions
elaboration likelihood model
explains the process of persuasion by identifying the likelihood of a person to elaborate cognitively/think vert carefully about a persuasive message
central route to persuasion
requires much cognitive effort on the part of the audience member in order to judge the merit of the advocated position or persuasive message
peripheral route to persuasion
may occur in any number of ways, none of which involves considerable cognitive effort
reasoned action and planned behavior model
holds that behavior is a result of thoughtful reasoning
automatic activation model
behavior is more spontaneous and is activated automatically
the mean world syndrome
heavy viewers see the world as a much nastier place than do light viewers
other harmful effects of cultivation theory
the skinny world syndrome, the posh world syndrome, drugs/alcohol, sex, stereotyping (racism, sexism)
the mean world index
an instrument used to measure people's perceptions about violence and aggression in the world
3 components of cultural indicators project
cultivation analysis, institutional process analysis, message system analysis
2 research methods used in studying cultivation
content analysis, survey methods
all diffusion studies involve
an innovation, communication from one person to another, a society/community setting, the element of time
5 innovation-adoption categories
innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, laggards
opinion leadership
certain people in a community are more interested in innovations, thus more knowledgeable; they influence less knowledgeable neighbors to adopt an innovation
according to Bandura, diffusion of innovations is viewed in terms of
symbolic modeling, persuasion, social prompting, motivation
3 major events that define the diffusion process
learning, adopting, interacting w/ others in social network
4 steps in the diffusion process
knowledge, persuasion, decision, confirmation
3 diffusion studies
Wissler's Study of Diffucion of Horses Among Plains Indians; The Iowa Hybrid Corn Seed Study; Diffusion of News
McQuail's organization of common needs for the media
information, personal identity, integration, entertainment
3 functions media serve in society
surveying the environment, correlation of environmental parts, transmit social norms and customs
Transactional Model
2 factors produce and effect: characteristics of the message, psychological orientation of audience member
gratification-seeking and audience activity model
particular kinds of gratifications are sought by the viewer and his/her attitude determine the viewer's attention to the content of these messages
expectancy-value model
explains a person's behavior, intentions, and attitudes as a function of 2 separate components: expectancy, evaluation
the probability that an attitude possesses a particular attribute or that a behavior will have a particular consequence
the degree of affect, positive or negative, toward an attitude or behavioral outcome
dependancy on a medium is the result of 2 factors
viewer motives for obtaining gratifications, the availability of viewing alternatives
assumptions of uses and gratifications
active audience, media use for gratifications, social and psychological factors, competition & mediation (must pay attention to media messages in order to be influenced by them)
criticisms of uses and gratifications
too individualistic, lack of synthesis of research findings, lack of clarity among key concepts, differences in the meaning of key concepts, the active audience and use of self-reporting
Phases of Agenda-Setting Research
initial study-chapel hill; replication; contingent factors; who sets the media agenda?
3 types of studies that fall within parameters of agenda-setting
media agenda setting, public agenda setting, policy agenda setting
3 features indicative of the fruitfulness of agenda setting
steady historical growth of its literature; ability to integrate a number of communications research subfields under a single theoretical umbrella; continuing ability to generate new research problems across a variety of communications settings
major problems with agenda-setting as a theory
lack of agreement between conceptual and operational definitions among researchers; ambiguity in terms of methodology; insufficient theory and lack of specification in terms of long-term vs. short-term agenda setting effects
3 important steps in persuasion
pay attention to message, comprehend message, accept message
all-important mediator that stands between the acquisition of new persuasive information and subsequent behavioral change
McGuire's Communication/Persuasion Matrix model
explained persuasion effects by identifying inputs (ind var) and outputs (dep var)
cognitive response theory
an audience member doesn't yield to a new attitude after simply learning a new message; yielding depends upon cognitive responses to message (what he/she thinks about it)
characteristics of attitude changes resulting from central route
accessibility, persistency, predictability of behavior, resistance to change
peripheral cue
a feature of the persuasion context that allows favorable or unfavorable attitude formation even in the absence of an effortful consideration of the true merits of the object or issue
3 factors that must be present for persuasion to occur
source, message, recipient
cultivation analysis
research strategy that administers a survey to representative samples and compares answers to "television answers"
assumption of cultivation
messages are uniform, viewing is non-selective, television viewing is habitual, tv and viewers interact
light viewers
<2 hrs
heavy viewers
4+ hrs
cultivation differential
the difference between heavy and light TV viewers
cultural environment movement
coalition of organizations that believe who gets to tell stories in a culture is important; want to move the public to regain control of the air-waves; viewers declaration of independence
normal distribution
symmetrical on either side of the mean value
probability of measurement lying within 1 standard deviation of the mean
probability of measurement lying within 2 standard deviations of the mean
probability of measurement lying more than 1 standard deviation below the mean
to get an s-shaped curve you
add up the probabilities from a bell-shaped curve
the process by which a consumer begins to buy and use a new good, service, or idea
diffusion and adoption process (steps)
knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, confirmation
percent of innovators
percent of early adopters
percent of early majority
percent of late majority
percent of laggards
critical mass
when the number of adopters reaches 5-15% and the process takes off and is probably irreversible
factors affecting adoption rates
self-efficacy, status incentives, relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
pysiological/survival needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, self-actualization needs,
the media do more than tell us what to think about. they influence the way we think.
a frame supplies a context and suggests what the issues is by using:
selection, emphasis, exclusion, and elaboration
agenda melding hypothesis
suggests that the mass media expand our knowledge of agenda options, and that they can also help us find other people who share them
agenda building
collective influence of and reciprocity between the public and the media in setting the agenda
triadic model of agenda effects
media agenda, policy agenda, public agenda
2 attitude components
affective (feeling) and cognitive (belief)
consummatory behavior
intrinsically motivated; an end in itself
instrumental behavior
extrinsically motivated; a means to some other end
best predictor of consummatory behavior
affective component
best predictor of instrumental behavior
cognitive component
affective approaches/peripheral routes
mere exposure; classical conditioning; operant conditioning; modeling
mere exposure effect
tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more after the individual has been repeatedly exposed to them
classical conditioning
pavlov; unconditioned stimulus leads to unconditioned response; conditioned stimulus leads to conditioned response
operant conditioning
skinner; organism given a reward immediately after target response occurs
bandura; learning a new behavior by observing and imitating that behavior being performed by another person
verbal learning approach
focuses on the message itself
motivational approaches
heider's balance (POX) theory; cognitive dissonance theory; psychological reactance theory
heider's balance (POX) theory
P (person, you) O (other person) X (object, issue); 2 types of relations among elements: unit; sentiment
unpleasant tension people experience whenever they feel that someone is trying to limit their freedom; leads to increased desire for forbidden option
two factors that influence whether someone can "elaborate a message" (ELM):
motivation, ability