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56 Cards in this Set

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What are the steps to analogies?

1-Retrieval


2-Mapping


3-Transfer


4-Evaluation


5-Storage

What are involved in each of these steps?

Retrieval is finding something in your memory to make an analogy to.


Mapping is finding correspondences between two things.


Transfer is using knowledge of one thing to learn something about the other.


Evaluation was the transfer successful


Storage is the memory to use this analogy in the future.



What is exemplar based reasoning?

Particular examples rather than rules or prototypes.

What is memory based reasoning?

Memories rather than abstract reasoning.

What is instance based reasoning?

Same as exemplar

What is case based reasoning?

Reasons based on cases of memory;AI field.

What is analogical based reasoning?

Use of distant analogies.

What are primary scene metaphors?

Representations of experiences everyone has.

What is correlation based metaphors?

Correlating two things. The base metaphor is the sensory and the target is the abstract.

What is language?

Set of symbols that are arranged to form a language.

What is natural language?

Created by humans and cultures.

What is artificial language?

Created by individuals or small groups.

What is computer language?

Artificial language made to communicate with computers.

What is zooemiotics?

Animal communication

How is human language implicit?

We know the language but dont know how we know it.

What is logic?

Formal system of reasoning.

What is an anchor in cog biases?

What you compare to when you evaluate something.(book to the movie)

What is the band wagon effect?

Believing something because everyone else believes it.



What is the herd instinct?

Believing what everyone else believes to avoid conflict.

What is confirmation bias?

Accepting things that confirm your views.

Contrast effect?

Focusing on the differences when looking at two things.

Distinction bias?

When viewing things at the same time, they will appear more different.

Endowment effect?

Once you own something, you value it more. Demand more when giving something up.

Hostile media effect?

You tend to think the news is being hostile toward your political views.

Temporal discounting?

Things in the future are less valued.

Moral credential effect?

Thinking you have acted morally will allow yourself to act badly.

Negativity bias?

Paying more attention to negative info.

Omission bias?

Doing harm is worse than doing nothing that causes equal harm.

Outcome bias?

Judging a decision based on what happened rather than available info.

Planning fallacy?

Underestimating how long something will take in the future.

Wishful thinking?

Believing something cause you want it to be true.

Availability heuristic?

Assuming things that are more memorable are more common/probable.

Base rate neglect?

Because a disease test is 90% accurate doesnt mean you likely have a 90% chance of having that disease is the test is positive.

Belief bias?

Accepting something cause you believe the conclusion.

Conjunction fallacy?

The conjunction of two things is bigger than the whole.

Pareidolia/clustering illusion?

Ways of seeing patterns where none really exist.

Recency effect?

Remembering the beginning and endings more than other parts.

Just world phenomenon?

Thinking the world is a just place, youll tend to look for reasons to blame victims of inexplicable happenings.

Explain the 10% of our brain myth.

Parts of our brain would be evolved to not be used. We use all of our brain but damage will cause deficiencies.

Explain ESP myth.

People may believe ESP because of confirmation bias or wishful thinking.

Explain Mozart and smart babies myth.

The effect of listening to Mozart on babies is small and short term.

I.Q test is biased myth

If I.Q test were biased they would over predict and under predict future success for certain groups

Money creates happiness myth.

Money can make you happy until you make 75 k and more a year.

Life events cause happiness myth.

You will return back the level of happiness after unhappy things happen. 60% of happiness is genetics.

Childhood abuse leads to disorders myth.

Weakly correlated. Conflict ridden homes cause disorders.

AI is a failure myth.

AI is a constant moving goal post.

Full moon and people acting strange myth.

People will act strange and normal both during a full moon and not a full moon.

What two stages of sleep are there?

REM and NREM

What is NREM?

Non rapid eye movement stage accounts for 75% of our sleep and is characterized by unmemorable dreams.

What is REM?

Rapid eye movement stage. Characterized by muscle atonia(relaxation) and dreaming.

What is the DLPFC?

Region in the brain that is deactivated when sleeping causing the reasoning in dreams to be weird and reduced.

Who can recall dreams and who cant?

Typically people can recall their dreams however we have this feeling that there was more to the dream than we can remember. Infants and animals cannot recall dreams.

What are dreams characterized by?

Scene shifts, 1st person narrative, dream emotion match content emotion, rarely bizarre; we remember the bizarre ones more.

What is threat simulation theory?

Dreams major functions are to deal with threats that our ancestors dealt with. Monsters and animals are common dreams as well as things we will never experience.

What is lucid dreaming?

You know you're dreaming and can control what happens.

What is sleep paralysis?

You are awake but you cont move and terrifying hallucinations occur.