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133 Cards in this Set

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Greek Ministry of Culture

- the Parthenon is exceptional; the return of items completes a building

- circumstances surrounds construction of Partenon and removal of sculpture well-known and better understood than other cases

- artifacts have greater resonance and increased significance in original environment

- Parthenon sculptures are particularly relevant to Greek identity


British Museum

- return of Parthenon sculptures would precipitate a tidal wave of requests for repatriation and possibly strip many museums of their collections

- academic setting for material; appreciated for own merits and valued as part of western tradition

- 200 year history as part of the BM

Legality of Ownership:

Greek Ministry of Culture

- Turkish government was occupying France

Firman allowed removal of small, sporadic and excavated finds, not dismantling of buildings

- no greater impediment to Athens than London

- primary context is more important than secondary

- New Acropolis Museum

Legality of Ownership:

British Museum

- fragments were purchased legally from ruling government

- Thomas Bruce had right to remove material

- Parthenon sculptures are accessible to more visitors than if in Athens

- inclusion of Parthenon sculptures is valuable to the "universal museum" concept of the BM

- museum better equipped to display sculpture than Athens

Parthenon Sculptures

- British Ambassador to Turkish Empire, Earl of Elgin; Thomas Bruce appointed in 1799

- 1801 - received permit to excavate and take marbles from the Acropolis

- 1806 - brought finds to his home in Scotland

- 1816 - sold to British Museum for ‎£35,000

- DEBATE: extent of removal allowed by firman

- DEBATE: Sovereignty of Turkish government

- DEBATE: cultural continuity from 5th c. BCE - 19th c.

Context of Artifacts:


"What is the best use of ancient artifacts?"

- Do archaeological artifacts have greater meaning when viewed closer to their place of origin?

- Is it of great benefit to have wider audience?

Context of Artifacts:


- Illegally excavated artifacts, sold on antiques market to museums and private collectors alike

- How to stop illegal excavation and exportation; repatriate stolen goods

- MET, MFA, Getty agreements

Legal vs. Cultural or Ethnic Ownership

- present laws forbid exportation of most cultural artifacts: artifacts of cultural patrimony remain within the national borders in which they were recovered

- problems of illegal excavation and exportation

- clandestine excavation

- illegal exportation from nation of deposition

- sale of artifacts

- presentation vs. provenance

- preservation?

The Getty Aphrodite

Dated to 425-400 BCE; 2.3m tall

- bought by Getty Museum in 1988 for $18mil US

- probably illegally excavated in 1977 from Morgantina, Sicily

- Italian authorities showed that Getty knew it was stolen

- 2005 - director of Getty, Marion True, indicted by Italian government

- 2007 - Getty agreed to return it (along with 39 other objects) and charges were dropped due to statute of limitation


- underlines importance of provenance

- disturbs site and provides no context

- no provenance: reduces scholarship to study of one aspect; usually aesthetic or stylistic

- results in driven research - the object in itself must be given value, so style is really all that can be considered

- hampers typology: limits value of object as comparative material when others find similar objects - bigger questions, like function, can't be addressed

The Getty Kouros

- bought by J. Paul Getty museum in 1983

- Provenance: papers showing history of sale

- included comparison with other, real kouroi

- letters found to be fakes

- problems:

- hair looks 6th c.; feet, face and torso look 5th c.

- thighs heavier than torso; base larger than usual

- marble from northern Greek island of Thasos (only surviving example of this marble)


Snake Goddess

- bought by director Charles Currelly in 1931 in attempt to put ROM on international map

- BUT no provenance

- from beginning scholars doubted authenticity

- kept on display but not highlighted

- 2001 - Kenneth Lapatin identifies snake goddess in Boston Museum as fake

- found 14 fake snake goddess in total


- how to tell what is real and what is fake

- what does a museum do when a fake is discovered?

Bridge from Classical Antiquity to Middle Ages

AD 324 - Constantine makes Byzantium the capital of the Roman Empire

AD 325 - Council of Nicea makes Christianity de-facto official religion of Roman World

St. Peter's Basilica

Rome, finished 1626

- over grave Constantine set columns of porphyry with other spiral columns from Greece

- carved with bands of vines leaves winding up

- baldacchino (canopy) over grave of St. Peter

Old St. Peter's Church

Peter = First Apostle and founder of Christian Community in Rome

- Feast of St. Peter = 29 June (died AD 64 or 67)

Arch of Constantine

AD 312-315

- triumphal arch celebrated victory over usurer Maxentius; sculptural program consists of spoiler (elements taken from elsewhere and reused)

- attic = inscription; above side arches = tondi (roundels)

- spolia: Trajanic, Hadrianic, Marcus Aurelius

- Constantine: victories in spandrels, relief below roundels

Basilica of Maxentius

Basilica: "Royal Hall" suitable for assembly

Begun AD 306

Politics of the Late Roman Empire

Tetrarchs, 284-305

- Rule by Four

- Eastern & Western (Augusti + Caesars)

- A: Diocletian & Maximian

- C: Constantius Chlorus & Galerius

- Maxentius, son of Maximian, ruled 306-312

- Constantine, son of Constantius vied for power and won in Battle of Milvian Bridge, 312 AD

- Constantine legitimized Christianity in Roman state (AD 313) and moved capital of Roman Empire to Byzantium/Constantinople AD 324


- Roman auxiliary fort, mid 2nd c. AD

- Vindolanda tablets:

- 752 wooden tablets

- daily life on the Roman frontier

Hadiran's Wall

- 55 + 54 BCE - Julius Caesar invades Britain

- AD 43, emperor Claudius successfully captures Britain and makes it Roman province

- construction of Hadrian's wall Ad 128

Pont du Gard, Nîmes

- mid 1st c. AD; 50m high

- Roman Engineering

- Roman hydraulic works: to supply towns with continuous supply of fresh water

- water flows from spring 20km north of city

- aqueduct is 50km long to take advantage of natural inclines to ease water flow

- 50,400 tonnes of stone brought by boat from nearby quarry

- flows over Garden River

- bridge allows continuation of aqueduct

Roman Provincial Sites

- Nemauses, Gaul (modern Nîmes, southern France)

- Vindolanda, Britannia (modern England)

Mausoleum of Hadrian

aka Castel Sant' Angelo

Mausoleum of Augustus

28 BCE

- intended for family use (dynastic)

- included niches for family members

- eventually housed the remains of subsequent Roman Emperors

- exceptional burials within the city walls

The Pyramid of Cestius

- built by Gaius Cestius

- c. 15 BCE

Tomb of the Baker

- Tomb of Marcus Vergilius Eurysoces, c. 50 BCE

- travertine and concrete

- freedman (former slave)

- cylindrical grain measures, over

- frieze with scenes of baking

Roman Funerary Traditions

- funerary marker for deceased entombed below

- Diis Manibus = to the gods below

- name, portrait included

- Portonaccio Sarcophagus, c. AD 200

- sarcophagi: in marble with sculpted relief with portrait of deceased in ante wreath

Roman Funerary Architecture

Roman Burial Practices:

1) Cinerary Urns

2) Sarcophagi

3) Tomb markers

4) monumental tombs

5) burial occurred outside of city walls; few exceptions

- columbarium - niches for ashes of individual

Portrait Statue

- representation of the likeness of a real person

- therefore recognizable as an individual

- idealized face, as if air-brushed or photo-shopped

- expression of calm control and authority

- portrait statue of a general, 1t c. BCE

- heroic nudity as a form of costume

- combines Greek idealized nude form with Roman preference for recognizable portrait

Roman Statue Types

- standard poses and costumes that reflect different roles ex: emperor as general addressing troops

- sacrificing

- making political speech

- body is standard type, in standardized attire

- head is individualized

Ara Pacis Augustae

9 BCE - Altar of Augustan Peace

- Sculptural style

- classicizing: looks back to Classical period and Greek sculpture/architecture


Julius Caesar Octavianus

- Ruled 27 BCE - AD 14

- grandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar

- 27 BCE - given title "Augustus" by senate

- held veto powers, thus no one could oppose his initiatives

- established role of Emperor

Sculpture in Bath of Caracalla

Farnese Hercules

- 10ft 6in tall

- copy of Greek Original

- weary after completion of final labour

Farnese Bull

- 3rd c. CE

- copy of Greek original

Baths of Caracalla

198-211 CE

- Baths: 212-219 CE, construction for another decade after

- Second largest in Rome

- Almost 300 acres

Hypocaust System

- a furnace that heats from below

- heat through floors, walls, vaults

- suspended floor (suspensurae) on pillars (pilae), heated by furnace (praefurnium)

- ancients credited to Sergius Orata

Roman Bath Activities:

Bath Rituals

- Tepidarium: warm room, not always a bath

- scrape off excess dirt and oil with strigil

- caldarium: hot bath

- frigidarium: cold bath

- optional: laconicum (dry heat room) and sudatorium (wet heat room)

Roman Bath Activities:

Pre-Bath Rituals

- Pre-bath ritual

- apodyterium - changing room

- cubbies for clothes, theft common

- apply oil and dust for exercise

- exercise tunic

- palaistra - exercise area

- natatio - swimming pool


- no helmet, no greares, arm guard and shoulder guard

- fought with net, trident and dagger

- much lighter weight


- bare torso, loin cloth, belt,, arm guard on right side, padding on right leg, helmet, tall infantry-style shield, short sword called 'gladius' (gladiator)

- armour weighed about 16-18kg

- one of heaviest armed types


- one greave, visored helmet, rectangular shield, short sword


- Thracian

- greaves, short sword, round shield; no visor on helmet

Arena of Colosseum

- games offered by Roman Emperors

- inaugural events lasted 100 days

- Battle of 300 men in the arena

- Venationes - set wild animals against each other - start with small animal (rabbit) and proceed to larger animals

- also animals against gladiators


- concrete construction; stone exterior (travertine) superimposed orders

- vomitoria - exit/entrance passages

- 76 passages in/out

- annular vaulted passages and barrel vaulted ramps

- velarium (awning)

The Amphitheatre

- earliest from southern Italy (Pompeii, c. 80 BCE)

- concrete construction

- substructure based on series of vaults (poured concrete)

Roman Spectacle and Games

Principal Types of Spectacle and Performance:

1) Ludi circenses - chariot racing in the circus

2) Venationes - games with animals (hunt, held in circus as well as amphitheatre)

3) Munera - gladiatorial games - originally took place in the circus, later in amphitheatre, but also in theatres

4) stadium games - foot races, light athletics


≠ Parthenon

- 'Temple to all the Gods'; Rome c. AD 118-125

- but by emperor Hadrian

- interior appearance dictates exterior appearance

- inverse of Greek Architecture

- constructed in concrete: heavier aggregate at base, lighter at the dome to reduce weight

- marriage of Greek architectural form with Roman design innovation

Roman Arch

- carried out in concrete

- often faced with stone or brick, obscuring the concrete core

- arch was employed by the Greeks in dry masonry, but limited in use

- groin and fenestrated groin vaults

Fourth Style Wall Painting

Ex: House of Vetti

- developed c. AD 50, flourished AD 62-79 in Bay of Naples

- continues ornamental focus of 3rd style "punctured" with fictive architecture frequented framed as panels within a larger wall

- combines elements of 2nd and 3rd styles

- theatrical context on display

Third Style Wall Painting

- from c. 20-10 BCE

- delicate linear designs against contrasting background dominantly monochromatic

- ornamental, jewel-like quality to architectural elements

- detailed scenes most commonly in miniature

- fanciful, no attempts at emulating natural world (i.e.: no fictive windows)

Second Style Wall Painting

Cubiculum of Villa at Borscoreali

- c. 50 BCE

- use of perspective creates 3D world beyond

- artificial architecture and landscape beyond

First Style Wall Painting

- imitates masonry and polychrome marble facings

- goal is to monumentalize domestic interior through allusion to public architecture

- ex: Samnite House, Herculaneum

Pompeian Wall Painting

4 styles:

- 1st style - ca. 2nd c. BCE-80 BCE

- masonry style

- 2nd style - ca. 80 BCE - 20 BCE

- architectural style; illusionism

- 3rd style - ca. 20 BCE - 10 BCE

- colour field; ornamental

- 4th style - ca. 10 BCE - AD 79

- mix of 2nd and 3rd styles with mythological and landscape panels

Typical Patrician (upper class) Roman House

3rd c. BCE

- patronus = patron (owner)

- cliens = client (farmers, workmen, houseworkers, artisans)

- salutatio = formal greeting/reception, occurred in the Atrium

Roman Domestic Architecture

- fauces

- atrium = principal public space in the house

- tablinum

- peristyle

- cubiculum

- triclinium

Getty Villa, Malibu

- built by oil magnate J. Paul Getty to house his vast art collection

- designed based on plans of the Villa of the Papyri

Villa A, Oplontis

Original date ca. mid 1st c. BCE

- Nero's wife Poppaea?

- original owner: L. Calpurnius Piso

- consul 58 BCE

- father-in-law of Julius Caesar

Wall painting of amphitheatre, Pompeii

- depicts riot at Pompeian amphitheatre in AD 59

Forum at Pompeii

- forum = agora (political, commercial, religious functions)

- typical elements of a Roman forum

- capitolium (temple of Jupiter)

- basilica

- market

- amphitheatre built after colonization, ca. 80-70 BCE for use by colonists

- earliest surviving Roman amphitheatre


- a Samnite town from 4th c. BCE

- Samnites = Indigenous Italian tribe

- colonized by Rome in 80 BCE

- what we know mostly dates to level of AD 79 (limited excavation on below ground level)

Giuseppe Fiorelli

- director of excavations at Pompeii, 1863-1875

- first casts displayed in 1863

Pyroclastic Flow

- hot avalanches of pumice, ash, and gases

- moves in at high speed after a ground surge

- most victims dies from inhaling the hot gases of the ground surge gases and bodies then encased in pyroclastic flow, creating moulds

- population of Pompeii ~20,000; roughly 2,000 victims found at site

Ground Surge

- a ring-shaped cloud of gas and suspended rock fragments which moves radically outward at high velocity from base of eruption

- leaves least amount of debris (20-30cm of material at Pompeii)

- BUT ground surge deadliest part of an eruption due to speed and high heat

Mt. Vesuvius (P. II)

Phase Two of Eruption

- a nuée ardente (glowing cloud), a hot avalanche of ash and gas

- two distinct parts

1) ground surge

2) pyroclastic flow

Mt. Vesuvius (P. I)

Phase One of Eruption

- "airfall phase," beginning at noon

- lasted 20 hours

- accumulation of ash and pumice to ~4m deep

- most of Pompeii's population fled during this phase

Model of Archaic Etruscan Temple


1) Stone foundation

2) Walls in mud brick

3) Wooden columns

4) Terracotta roof tiles/architectural terracottas

5) Acroteria in terracotta = epiphany of the gods


- terracotte sculpture

- architectural sculpture


- city planning

- religious architecture (Greek orders)

- domestic architecture

What is Roman Art?

- traditions of styles, genres and iconography that served political and cultural needs of Roman societies

- therefore, Roman Art is defined as art that specific meaning endowed through Roman society - reflects society and not necessarily the ethnicity or origin of the artist

- adopted Greek art and architecture

- Roman Art = new product of Greek & Italian influence

Livy and Vergil

Livy, Ab Urke Condita (from the foundation [of Rome]); c. 25 BCE

Vergil, The Aeneid, (ca. 19 BCE) poetic account of the foundation of Rome links Rome's origins back to the Trojan War through hero Aeneas, who fled the sack of Troy and whose descendants founded Rome

Archaeology of Roman History

- first accounts of Roman History: 3rd-2nd c. BCE

- Historians = annalists; year by year account

- Epic poets = patriotic accounts of earlier days

- Romans venerated their own history: they looked back as much as forward and esteemed tradition and values of earlier times (maiores)

- maiores = greater generations

Roma Urbs

- located on River Tiber

- Septimontium = 7 hills

- Capitoline HIll

- Roman Forum

- Palatine Hill

- Campus Martius (field of Mars)


Traditional foundation date: 753 BCE

753-509 BCE = Monarchy

509-27 BCE = Republic

27 BCE = Empire

Boy Athletes, Peristyle Garden

2nd Style Wall Painting, Villa A

Dancing Faun

Drunken Faun

Getty Villa, Malibu

Giuesppi (sp?) Firoelli

Model of Archaic Etruscan Temple

Pompeian Bost Casts - Boxer Pose

Resting Hermes, Getty Villa


Villa A

Villa of the Papyri

1st Style Wall Painting

3rd Style Wall Painting

4th Style Fresco

4st Style: House of Vettii

Alexander Mosaic

Arena of Colosseum


House of the Faun

Interior of the Pantheon



Peristyle Garden, House of the Vettii


The Amphitheatre

Thrax vs. Hoplomachus

Ara Pacis Augustae


Augustus Sacrificing

Baths, Pompeii


Farnese Bull

Farnese Hercules

Funerary Marker

Hypocaust System

Mausoleum of Augustus

Mausoleum of Hadrian

Portonaccio Sarcophagus

Portrait of a Woman

Portrait Statue of a General

Sculpture of the Ara Pacis

The Pyramid of Cestius


Tomb of the Baker

Arch of Constantine


Basilica of Maxentius

Hadrian's Wall

Handranic Roundels

Pont du Gard, Nîmes

Pont du Gard, Nîmes

St. Peter's Basilica

St. Peter's Basilica


Vindolanda Tablets

Elgin Marbles in British Museum

The Getty Aphrodite

The Getty Kouros

ROM Snake Goddess