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19 Cards in this Set

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Critical period

Time which child must be exposed to Lang for successful acquisition. Maturational stage in lifespan of an organism when nervous system, especially sensitive certain environmental stimuli. If organism doesn't receive appropriate stimuli during "critical period" to learn given skills/traits. - potential to develop functions later in life become potentially difficult & less successful. Functions are indispensable to survival, i.e. vision (likely develops during period'). Relates ability to acquire ones 1st Lang. Passing period means not acquiring 1st Lang fluently.

Nativism

Opposite to nurture. Idea that all Lang is in-built. Theory concepts mental capacities & mental structures.

Ellipsis / omission

Deletion of words, phrases, phonemes etc - * I tired.

Motherese

Ways mothers talk to young. Features: simplified grammar, exaggerated speech melody, diminutive forms of words i.e. doggie & highly repetitive style.

Multi-stage

Involves several stages / processes. Greater command of grammar & extending vocab e.g. I go shop, I buy food, i am going to the shop.

Parataxis

Multiple strings of simple sentences

Overextension & underextension

Categorical overextension - word from particular categorical applied to all words from category 'apple' - 'fruit'.


Analogical overextension - word from 1 category applied to a word from different category. (Still link between 2 words) 'ball' to refer to orange.


Mismatch overextension - random words to represent other words from categories with no obvious link e.g. 'chair' for 'glass'.


Underextension - Restricting application of a word to only 1 context e.g. recognising mum as female but not recognising any other female relative as female.



Negation

Negative statement using negative particles.

Network building

Connections between words; synonyms & autonyms e.g. cold, freezing, chilly, on/off, in/out.

Receptive vocab

Words children comprehend despite not producing them themselves.

Proto-words

Part of word/ reduced form which is produced before Lang properly acquired, has consistent meaning e.g. mama= mother.

Word pronunciation (phonology)

Bilabial - lips come together to produce sound (b,p,m)


Dental - Teeth come over lips to produce sound (f,v)


Alveolar dental - Tongue touches hard alveolar ridge above teeth to produce sound (d,t)


Palatal - Tongue touches domed part of the hard palate of the mouth at top (sh)


Velar - sound comes from velum of the back of throat (g,k)


Glottal - stop from back of throat vocal folds brought together 'bu __ er' instead of 'butter'.


Nasal - airflow travels through nose to produce sound (m, n, ng)

Plosive, fricative, affricate, approximant

Plosive - burst of air e.g. PoP


Fricative - friction; restricted airflow e.g. FiFty.


Affricate - two-part consonant sound e.g. juDGe.


Approximant - sounds produced with little friction (r,w,l,t)



Place of articulation - whereabouts sound is produced e.g. bilabial


Voicing - whether vibration of vocal chords occur, characterizes speech, voiceless (unvoiced) or voiced (B vs. P)

Monophthong & Diphthong

Monophthong - single, short vowel sounds e.g. TAP


Diphthong - Gliding, long vowel sound e.g. foll


oll

Assimilation, intonation, substitution, deletion & addition

Assimilation - 1 sound becomes similar to other sound near. Handbag = Hambag.



Intonation - Rising/falling of voice. 3 main patterns: falling intonation, rising intonation & fall-rise intonation.



Substitution - Replacing 1 sound with another, substitutes harder sounds with easier ones e.g. Tebby (Teddy)



Deletion - Omitting 1 sound e.g. Mou (mouth)



Addition - including extra sound e.g dgog (dog) "goingg".


Consonant cluster reduction

Form of deletion which drops consonant in favour of a consonant-vowel structure e.g. pider (spider)

Virtuous error & Child-Directed speech (CDS)

Virtuous errors - acceptable error, accepted as part of development e.g. ship instead of chip.


CDS - Adult speaking to child using simplified vocab, melodic pitch, repetitive questioning & slow/ deliberate tempo.

Triadic & Dyadic interaction

Triadic - 3 entities (2 parents, child or parent, child, toy)


Dyadic - 2 entities (parent & child, child & toy)

Behaviourism (behavioural psychology)

Process of conditioning drawing connections between learning, using rewards, punishments etc. Behaviourists believe our responses to environmental stimuli shape our actions.