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28 Cards in this Set

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Britton's model of writing types

1. Expressive: 1st person, exploration ( links to Piaget)


2. Poetic : literacy, creative and imaginative


3. Transactional : "worldly" separating own identity from writing.

Writing develops, transitional/ poetic .

Gentry's 5 stages of spelling

1. Pre-phonemic( emergent writing): scribbling, imitation and random.


2. Semi Phonetic : left- right writing direction, links to graphemes/ phonemes.


3. Phonetic: Phonemes represented by graphemes. Complete words written.


4. Transactional - combines phonic knowledge with memory silent letters becoming acknowledged.


5. Conventional: words spelt correctly.

Krolls 4 stages of spelling

▪️Preparation (6 up)- basic motor skills acquired alongside principle of spelling.


▪️Consolidation (7/8 yrs) - writing similar to spoken language: casual, colloquial register, unfinished sentences,strings of clause joined by conjunction" and".


▪️Differentiation (9/10 yrs) - Awaress of writing separate from speech emergence. Strong understanding of writing purpose/ audience; more automatic/evident .


▪️Integration ( mid-teens) - personal voice in writing characterised by evidence appropriate linguistic choices made consistently.


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Rothery's writing categories

▪️ Observation/ comment - simply form of writing/ observation followed by evaluative comment ( I saw a Tiger. It was very large). Observation mixed with an evaluative comment.


▪️Recount - Chronological events . Subjective writing orientation ( sets the scene) -Event - Reorientation ( complete writing).


▪️Report - Factual/ objective- Chronological/ non chronological.


▪️ Narrative - Story genre with events/ resolution orientation- Complication- Resolution- coda( identities point/ moral of story, isn't always added structural complexity,few children achieve full structure, despite experience of reality/ narrative structure.

Chall's stages of reading (0-5)

▪️Pre-reading/Pseudo reading (up to 6) - Pretend reading ( turning pages/ repeating stories) Some letter word recognition, especially names.


▪️Initial reading/ decoding (6-7) - Reading simple texts, understanding words as a whole - slow process.


▪️ Confirmation/ fluency (7-8) - Reading texts quickly, accurate/ fluent. More attention on words/ texts meaning


Reading for learning (9-13)- than learning to read. Range of texts.


▪️ Multiplicity and complexity (14-18) - critical/analyse of what they've read. Recognizing how meanings can be conveyed in different ways,bias and inference.


▪️ Constructing/reconstructing - Reading selectively/ forming opinion about what they have read. Wide range ( scan effectively).

Skinner's operant conditioning

Behaviour conditioning- positive( reward)/ negative(punishment) reinforcement.

+ve: Language diversity- identify/pragmatic ( nonstandard, grammatical constructs/ lexical choices) - regional dialect, phonological features of accent/ politeness.


-ve: (Chomsky)LAD- Adult/Caregivers don't always speak grammatically correct. Children= overextension/ overgeneralisation(Correction). Bruner= learning input= gradual process.

Bruner's LASS/ Social interaction

LAD - outlining CDS, support system but into social context,not just congintive- language.

+ve: four phrase structure scaffold: (1-4)Gaining attention,Query,label and feedback. Structure context,child engagement, misunderstanding clarified through questioning/ detailed discussion.


-ve: irregular form rules embedded/ over generalised into correcting them( e.g. fell/ falled).

Tomasello- CDS/ Usage-based linguistics

️ Collaborative goal, orientate listener's intentions/ attention with the speak - conversation.( Dyadic/ Tradic discourse= increase development of lexis/syntax= shared goal.


▪️Language= socially driven behaviour based on cognitive processes (e.g. walking/ drawing). No instinctive grammar( Chomsky)- more building block approach, actively develops sensory input from social interactions- pattern formation/ decoding someone's language functions ( reading).

+ve: (9-12 months) pattern abilities, enables learn and form / functional words/ build generalised syntax and how they widely apply. Intention reading : Child distinguish between question/ directs action.


-ve: poverty stimulus( argument- Chomsky) grammatical coherent structures aren't formed through social interactions alone.

Vygotsky's Language and thought: MKO/ ZPD

️ Egocentric speech,"underground"-think than speak aloud. 'Doing"- caregiver being used as a scaffold/ MKO helps ZPD( bridges gap between learning/ progress).

+ve : Bruner's four phrase structure; MKO helps child with ZPD. Saussure abrituary phonemes contextualise meaningful experiences - symbols/Signs.


-ve: learn from observation/ indirect behaviours from adults. Passive interactions allow children to develop language.

Kaluli tribe

CDS isn't universal; not identified in the tribe in Papua New Guinea. Children don't experience impair language development.

Gleason's gender roles

Male caregivers- tease, use imperative structures within CDS V females who use domestic lexis/ phraseology with less complex syntax.

Women also use paralinguistic- motherese.

Trevarthen's view CDS

Triadic discourse= vigorous/playful

Halliday's Taxonomy

Regulatory (influence)


▪️ Heuristic (exploring)


▪️Interactional ( socialising)


▪️Personal( preferring)


▪️ Representational (exchanging)


▪️ Instrumental (functional)


▪️ Imaginative ( playful)

Noam Chomsky Nativism

Universal Grammar


Understanding core rules/parameters of grammatical choices /combinations.


▪️LAD- Children have infinite set tools clarify rules of language.


▪️ Poverty of stimulus: parental input isn't always grammatical.


▪️Periphery rules aren't part of universal grammar compare to core rules.

Crystals preverbal vocalisations

️vocal play - single vowel/ consonant - like sounds. Varied than babbling but less controlled.


▪️ Biological noise - vomiting, coughing, burping,crying, low cooing sounds.


▪️Melodic utterance - melody, rhythm, intonation. Sometimes parents assume sounds represents functions.


▪️Babbling - phonemes= combination of vowels/ consonants.


▪️Cooing and laughing - Settled state short vowel like sounds, some consonant sounds means to develop control over vocal muscles.

Leslie Rescorla's - 3 types of overextension's based on Lexical development:

Analogical- word from one category from different ones( i.e. link between two words ; ball- orange )


Categorical - word category applied all words from that .


▪️Mismatch - Random words represents words from category with no obvious link.

Aitchson's lexical/ semantic development

Children expand their vocab through network building, aspect of this stage is understanding hyponymy that occur at 18 months.

labelling - linking words to objects; understanding objects can be labelled.


▪️ Packaging - Exploring labels and how this can be applied . Over/ under occurs in order to understand a range of word meanings.


▪️Network Building - Making connection between words - understanding similarities / opposite meanings .

Berko and Brown


"Fis phenomenon"/ "Wug test".

Correcting pronunciation "fis" -"fish" child thought they said "fish". Auditory development and metalingustic awareness. Articulation,listening and understanding aren't fully synched.



Understands Morphology- Pseudo word "Wug" ensures children no previous exposure. Identified deduce plural of nouns: 76% 4-5yrs old correctly accurate plural inflection. Children identify correct adjective based on nouns .

Macwhimey's production v comprehension

Words can be learnt with inflection, get with no knowledge of how this word can be broken down ( i.e. morphology of a word can alter it's semantic , prefixes , suffixes and inflections. Production doesn't necessarily mean full comprehension.

Look and say approach

Whole-word approach- words by sight, than breaking them down into individual phonemes.

Psycholinguistics approach to reading

Natural development from environment/ exposure to reading resources available. Active reading approach. The reader is given responsibility for working out what words mean than being into contextual clues.

Phonics approach to reading

Sounding out words/ recognising phoneme grapheme correspondence. Analytics phonics : separating time/ recognising patterns between words/sounds; synthetic phonics involves 44 phonemes related graphemes in fast pace , intensive context, blending sounds together . Tricky words don't follow the same rules, so they are learnt separately.

Domney's Rhyme

Rhyming helps children with phonemic patterns to grapheme clusters( reading / spelling ).

Nelson's lexical categories

4 categories of first words:


▪️Action/ events


▪️ Describing/ modifying things


▪️ Personal/ social words


▪️Naming


60% nouns,verbs second largest group. Third modifies 8% personal/social words.

Referential/ expressive children Nelson:

Early 50 words. Referential lexicons- object oriented words. Expressive - self oriented with few object words, they are more personal- social terms for express feelings,needs and social forms with formulaic phrases / sentences ,gestalts and speech functions and pronouns/ nouns.


Gestalts- characteristics of reduced phonemic articulation; pauses without , between words with a clear intonation pattern ( mumbled/ slurred)

Ursula Bellugi's - Negation formation

1. Negation solely


2. No/not beginning/ end of utterance


3. No/not inside an utterance (e.g. I no want it) some model verbs usage can't/ don't.


4. Increase accuracy of negatives, contraction auxiliary/ she isn't going / I don't want to.

Stages increase complexity negative range (e.g. I haven't got any/ there isn't anything I have not got my juice)

Crystal's viewpoint on Negation .

Supports Bellugi's negation formation. Pragmatic than grammar. Adults use " maybe" than "no/ not" to have a direct agreement with their child. Master once learnt syntactic structures formed through negation.

Piaget's Cognitive development- language and thought= 4 stages

▪️ Sensorimotor stage(0-2yrs) - interact with environment; senses / physical movement. Child remains egocentric.


▪️Pre- operational stage (2-7yrs) - learning to speak/ imaginative focus. See's the world symbolically. Egocentric struggles with concept of understanding.


▪️Concrete operational stage(6-12yrs) - Not egocentric/ understands. Others views and is capable of logical thought


▪️Formal operation stage( 11-16yrs) - logical thought/ abstract thinking increase

+ve: impossible to teach abstract language concepts to those not cognitively ready. Early speech ability: abstract concepts/ tangible concrete nouns/ dynamic verbs: social interactions ( Halliday)/ egocentric speech- outdated, egocentric becomes socially unacceptable.


-ve: vygotsky's theory interconnected; egocentric speech isn't removed= underground with language thought.