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41 Cards in this Set

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At constant pressure, state of matter depends on _____________ and _______________.

thermal energy; strength of intermolecular forces

In the gaseous state, ___________ has overcome _____________, giving molecules total freedom of motion.

thermal energy; attractive forces between


molecules

In the solid state, molecules don't have enough _____________ to overcome _____________.

thermal energy; attractive forces between


molecules

In the liquid state, molecules have enough ____________ to overcome only some ________________.

thermal energy; attractive forces

Coulomb's Law

Energy of ion interaction is proportional to the charges of the two particles over the distance between them.

Ion-Dipole

Interaction between an ion and the partial charge of a molecule with a permanent dipole.

Sphere of Hydration

cluster of water molecules around an ion as it dissolves in an aqueous solution.

Dipole-Dipole

Interaction of two molecules with dipole


moments

Hydrogen Bonding

Special class of dipole-dipole interactions;


requires an H atom bonded to strongly eneg. atom (F, O, or N)

London/Dispersion Forces

Temporary intermolecular forces caused by the constant movement of electrons; occurs


between non-polar molecules. Can also occur between polar molecules but with little effect.

Ion-Induced and Dipole-Induced Dipoles

Ion or dipole induces a dipole on an otherwise non-polar molecule

van der Waals Forces

collection of attractive forces that hold


molecules together

Ion and polar molecule = _____________

Ion-Dipole IMF

Ion and non-polar molecule = ________________

ion-induced dipole IMF

O-H, F-H, N-H

Hydrogen bonding

Polar molecule and polar molecule = _________

dipole-dipole IMF

Polar and non-polar molecule = ______________

dipole-induced dipole IMF

True or False: dispersion forces are always present regardless of the polarity of the two


molecules.

TRUE

Increase IMF = (increase/decrease) BP

Increase

Increase IMF = (increase/decrease) vapor


pressure

decrease



Increase IMF = (increase/decrease) melting point

increase

Increase IMF = (increase/decrease) surface


tension

increase

Increase IMF = (increase/decrease) viscosity

increase

Define boiling point

temperature at which vapor pressure is equal to pressure on liquid, which is usually atmospheric pressure.

When pressure on a liquid increases, the boiling point (increases/decreases).

increases

When pressure on a liquid decreases, the boiling point (increases/decreases).

decreases

Induced Dipole

separation of charge in an atom/molecule due to a momentary unequal distribution of electrons

Polarizability

tendency of electron density to be distorted by a charged particle; related to strength of the


nucleus's pull on its electrons.

A larger molecule/atom will have (stronger/weaker) dispersion forces than a


smaller molecule/atom.

stronger

A molecule with higher surface area will have (stronger/weaker) dispersion forces than a


molecule with lower surface area.

stronger

True or False: linear molecules exhibit stronger dispersion forces than branched molecules.

TRUE



Increase in Polarity of substance =


(increase/decrease) in Solubility of Polar


Substance

Increase

Solubility depends on......

relative strength of solute-solvent interactions compared to solute-solute and solvent-solvent interactions.

Substances with similar IMF (will/will not) form a solution.

will

Henry's Law

C = KP


Where C = concentration of the gas


K = Henry's Law constant


P= partial pressure of gas



True or False: pressure has little to no effect on the solubility of solids or liquids in water.

TRUE

Solubility of gas (increases/decreases) as


pressure increases.

increases

Factors that affect physical state

temperature, IMF, pressure



Triple Point

spot on a phase diagram where all three phases exist

Critical Point

specific temperature and pressure at which the liquid and gas phases have the same density

Supercritical Fluid

a substance above its critical temperature and pressure