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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
surrounds the whole muscle and is made of dense irregular connective tissue
muscle fibers
elongated muscle cells
myo or mys
root word meaning muscle in reference to muscle
root word meaning flesh in reference to muscle
skeletal muscle tissue
Muscle composed of cylindrical multinucleate cells with obvious striations; the muscle(s) attached to the body's skeleton; voluntary muscle. responsible for mobility
smooth muscle
Spindle-shaped cells with one centrally located nucleus and no externally visible striations (bands). Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs. involuntary muscle. moves fluids and substances
cardiac muscle
specialized muscle of the heart striated involuntary contractions controlled by the brain
voluntary muscle
muscle under strict nervous control; skeletal muscle
involuntary muscle
Muscle that cannot ordinarily be controlled voluntarily (e.g., smooth and cardiac muscle).
Excitability (irritability or responsiveness)
Ability to respond to stimuli.
Muscle cell’s ability to move by shortening.
connective tissue sheaths
what muscle fibers are wrapped in and held together by. they support and reinforce the muscle
sheath of dense irregular fibrous connective tissue surrounding the whole muscle
sheath of fibrous connective tissue enveloping bundles of muscle fibers called fascicles
Bundle of nerve or muscle fibers bound together by connective tissue
sheath of connective tissue surrounding each muscle cell. fine areolar connective tissue
insertion attachment
movable attachment of muscle
origin attachment
Attachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during muscular contraction.
direct attachment
fused connection between epimysium of muscle to periostium of bon
indirect attachment
epimysium of muscle extends in ropelike tendon or sheetlike aponeurosis both anchor muscle to bone or other muscles
Cord of dense fibrous tissue attaching muscle to bone
The plasma membrane surface of a muscle fiber
The nonfibrillar cytoplasm of a muscle fiber.
Granules of stored glycogen that provide glucosed during periods of muscle cell activity
A red pigment that stores oxygen
Rodlike bundle of contractile filaments hat occupy most of the muscle fiber (cell) volume
series of dark and light bands along the length of the myofibril
A Bands
Dark bands in the striations of the myofibril. They have a light midsecton called HZone w/ darker M Lines. Thick filaments span its width
I Bands
Light bands in the striations of the myofibril. They are interrupted by Z discs in the middle. Thin filaments span I Band and are partway in A Band also.
H Zone
Lighter region in the midsection of A Band
M Lines
Vertically bisecting dark lines of the H Zone formed by molecules of the protein myomesin. hold adjjacent thick filaments together
Z Discs
Midline intterruption of the I Band that anchors thin filaments
Smalles contractile uinit of muscle consisting of the section between 2 Z Discs
Filament that constitutes myofibrils. Of two types: actin (thick) and myosin (thin)
A contractile protein of muscle. thin filaments mostly composed of same
One of the principal contractile proteins found in muscle.
thick filaments mostly composed of same.
thick filaments
central myosin containing filaments that spann the A Band
thin filaments
lateral actin containing filaments that spann the I band and part of the A band
elastic filaments
span the z disc and runs withing thick filaments forming its core and connecting one myofibril to the next
cross bridges
are formed when thick and thin filaments link togetther
rod shaped protein that spirals about actin core of thin filaments that stiffen ans stabalizes it. block binding sites when muscle is relaxed.
globular protein in thin filaments that helps control myosin-actin interactions and helps position tropomyosin to actin of thin filaments
a gian protein that elastic filaments are made of. holds thick filaments in place and helps muscle sping back into shape after being stretched
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Specialized endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells responsible for regulating intracellular levels of ionic calcium
T Tubules
Extension of the muscle cell plasma membrane (sarcolemma) that protrudes deeply into the muscle cell and sends the message to every myofibril to contract.
Terminal Cisternae
tubules of sr @ A and I band junctions
somatic motor neurons
nerve cells that activate skeletal muscle
long threadlike extensions of neurons that branch off to form neuromuscular junctions w/ single muscle cells. they carry impulses away from nerve cell body
axon terminals (synaptic knob)
bulbous distal endings of the teminal branches of an axon
synaptic cleft
fluid filled space at a synapse. located in extracellular space between axon terminal and sarcolemma.
synaptic vesicles
small membranous sacs containing neurotransmitter
acetylcholine (ACh)
Chemical transmitter substance released by some nerve endings.
Junctional Folds
the part of the sarcolemma that forms the neuromuscular junction that is highly folded to increase surface area
Ach Receptors
located in sarcolemma. Ach binds to them to open ion channels allowing Na+ into muscle and K+ out.
Enzyme present at the neuromuscular junction and synapses that degrades acetylcholine and terminates its action
Action Potential
A large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is conducted along the membrane of a muscle cell or a nerve fiber
Loss of a state of polarity; loss or reduction of negative membrane potential.
end plate potential
local depolarization
sarcolemma restored to intitial polarized state and is a consequence of change in membrane permeability
refractory period
stimulation is impossible becasue repolarization is occuring