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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

1. Social Stratification

Hierarchical differences and inequalities in economic positions, as well as in other important areas, especially political power and status or social honor.
2. Social Class
One’s economic position in the stratification system, especially one’s occupation, which strongly determines and reflects one’s income and wealth.
3. Power
The ability to get others to do what you want them to do, even if it is against their will.
4. Status Consistency
The occupation of similar positions in the stratification system across the dimensions of class, status, and power; people with status consistency rank high, medium, or low on all three dimensions.
5. Status Inconsistency
The occupation of different positions on different dimensions of the stratification system.
6. Inequality
The fact that some positions in society yield a great deal of money, status, and power while others yield little, if any, of these.
7. Symbolic Exchange
A process whereby people swap all sorts of things in a setting where the process of exchange is valued in itself and for the human relationships involved and not because of the economic gains- the money- that may be derived from it.
8. Income
The amount of money a person earns in a given year from a job, a business, or various types of assets and investments.
9. Wealth
The total amount of a person’s assets less the total of various kinds of debts.
10. Absolute Poverty
An absolute measure- such as the U.S. poverty line- that makes it clear what level of income people need in order to survive.
11. Relative Poverty
The state of being or feeling to be, irrespective of income, poor relative to others.
12. Poverty Line
The threshold, in terms of income, below which a household is considered poor.
13. Social Mobility
The ability or inability to change one’s position in the social hierarchy.
14. Vertical Mobility
Both upward and downward mobility.
15. Horizontal Mobility
Movement within one’s social class.
16. Intergenerational Mobility
The difference between the parents’ social class position and the position achieved by their child(ren).
17. Intragenerational Mobility
Movement up or down the stratification system in one’s lifetime.
18. Occupational Mobility
Changes in people’s work, either across or within generations.
19. Structural Mobility
The effect of changes in the larger society on the position of individuals in the stratification system, especially the occupational structure.
20. Achievement
The accomplishments, or the merit, of the individual.
21. Ascription
Being born with or inheriting certain characteristics (wealth, high status, etc.)
22. Caste
The most rigid and most closed system of stratification, usually associated with India.
23. Slavery
A system in which people are defined as property, involuntarily place in perpetual servitude, and not given the same rights as the rest of society.
24. Theories of Colonialism
Systems of thought that address the causes and consequences of a powerful nation-state’s control of a less powerful geographic area.
25. Colonialism
A method of gaining control over another country or geographical area; generally involves settlers, as well as formal mechanisms of control.
26. Imperialism
Control over geographic areas without the creation of colonies.
27. Postcolonialism
The era in once-colonized areas after the colonizing power has departed, although postcolonial thinking and work could already be well under way before the colonizing power departs.
28. World System Theory
A system of thought that focuses on the stratification of nation-states on a global scale.
29. Distinction

The need to distinguish oneself from others.