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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
social stratification
a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
4 principles of social stratification
trait of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences

carries over generations

universal but variable

involves not just inequality, but beliefs as well
social mobility
a change in position within the social hierarchy
people switch from one job to another at about the same social level
caste system
social stratification based on ascription, or birth
class system
social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement
social stratification based on personal merit
status consistency
degree of consistency in a person's social standing across various dimensions of social inequality
estate system
castelike system in england during the middle ages
law of primogeniture
prevented landholdings from being divided by heirs when nobles died
"reconstruction" - mikhail gorbachev's new economic program that brought him to power
structural social mobility
a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society than to individual efforts
cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality
davis-moore thesis
social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society
own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
working people who sell their labor for wages
the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness
ralf dahrendorf's reason for no marxist revolution
fragmentation of capitalist class

higher standard of living

more worker organizations

greater legal protections
white-collar occupations
higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity
socioeconomic status
refers to a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality
conspicuous consumption
buying and selling products with an eye to the "statement" they make about social position



"blue bloods" or "society"

most upper-class people

top half
INTRAgenerational social mobility
a change in social position occurring during a person's lifetime
INTERgenerational social mobility
upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents
four conclusions about social mobility in US
has been fairly high over past century

long-term trend in mobility has been upward

within a single generation, mobility usually small

has been uneven since 1970s
american dream - trends
for many workers, earnings have stalled

more jobs offer little income

young people remaining at home
relative poverty
deprivation of some people in relation to those who have more
absolute poverty
deprivation of resources that is life-threatening
feminization of poverty
women making up increasing proportion of the poor
oscar lewis
poor become trapped in a culture of poverty
julius wilson
society is primarily responsible for poverty