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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Perception.
Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. However, what one perceives can be substantially different from objective reality.
Define attribution theory.
Attribution theory is when individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
Define fundamental attribution error.
Fundamental attribution error is the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
Define self-serving bias.
Self-serving bias is the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
What is selective perception?
Selective perception is where people selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
Define the halo effect.
The halo effect is drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic, such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance.
What are contrast effects?
Contrast effects are the evaluation of a person's characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.
What is projection?
Projection is attributing one's own characteristics to other people.
Define stereotyping.
Stereotyping is judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person belongs.
Define self-fulfilling prophecy.
Self-fulfilling prophecy is a situation in which one person inaccurately perceives a second person and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception.
When does decision making occur?
Decision making occurs as a reaction to a problem. That is a discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state, requiring the consideration of alternative courses of action.
The optimizing decision maker is rational. What does this mean?
The optimizing decision maker is rational. That is, he or she makes consistent, value-maximizing choices within specified constraints.
What are the six steps in the rational decision-making model?
The six steps in the rational decision-making model are:
1. Define the problem.
2. Identify the decision criteria.
3. Allocate weights to the criteria.
4. Develop the alternatives.
5. Select the best alternative.
What is the rational decision-making model?
A decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome.
The rational decision-making model contains a number of assumptions. Name six of them.
1. Problem Clarity
2. Known options
3. Clear preferences
4. Constant preferences
5. No time or cost constraints
6. Maximum payoff.
Define problem clarity (with regards to the rational decision-making model).
Problem Clarity:
The problem is clear and unambiguous. The decision maker is assumed to have complete information regarding the decision situation.
Define known options (with regards to the rational decision-making model).
Known Options:
It is assumed the decision maker can identify all the relevant criteria and can list all the viable alternatives. Furthermore, the decision maker is aware of all the possible consequences of each alternative.
Define clear preferences (with regards to the rational decision-making model).
Clear Preferences:
Rationality assumes that the criteria and alternatives can be ranked and weighted to reflect their importance.
Define constant preferences (with regards to the rational decision-making model).
Constant preferences:
It's assumed that the specific decision criteria are constant and that the weights assigned to them are stable over time.