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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are most human traits controlled by?
a single gene with 1 dominate allele & 1 recessive allele
what do traits control
hair color eye color windows peak or dimples, etc
What are some other traits controlled by??
multiple alleles
multiple alleles
three or more alleles
how many alleles control human blood type?
what are the 4 main human blood types?
A, B, AB, O
were both traits are expressed in the offspring without being blended.
incomplete dominance
were both traits are blended to create a different phenotype then the others
Type A and type B blood are always...
type O blood is always a what allele?
Genotype blood for A could be what?
Genotype blood for B could be what?
the only way for type O blood would be for a genotype of
Sometimes what could influence the efforts of a gene.
surroundings or environment
Sex Chromosomes are found on what pair of chromosomes?
23rd pair
what chromosomes are females?
What chromosomes are males?
what is Sex-Linked Traits
traits passed on from parent to offspring on the sex chromosomes
who is more likely to inherit a sex-linked trait
what two ways are genetics disorders inherited?
1) change in the gene or chromosomes called a Mutation
2) changes in the overall structure or number of chromosomes
Colorblindness (what it causes, how inherited)
Causes- vision problem between the colors red and green
how- is controlled by a recessive allele on the X chromosomes
Cystic Fibrosis (what it causes, how inherited)
Causes- body produces abnormally thick mucus in the lungs & intestine causing breathing difficulty
how- is controlled by a recessive allele on the one chromosomes. It is the result of a mutation in which 3 of 4 nitrogen bases are missing from the DNA
Sickle-cell Disease (what it causes, how inherited)
causes- sickle shaped blood cells which can clog blood vessels and a lack of oxygen movement in the body
how- Must inherit 2 recessive alleles for the disorder. I you inherit 1 allele your will not have the disorder but will be a carrier
Hemophilia (what it causes, how inherited)
causes- persons blood clots very slowly or not at all. Danger of internal bleeding from small bumps and bruises
how- must inherit a recessive allele on the X chromosome
Down syndrome (what it causes, how inherited)
causes- some degree of mental retardation as well as hear defects
how- person’s cells have an extra copy of chromosomes 21 because the chromosomes did not separate correctly
2 genetics tools to track disorders throughout families and probability of inheritance
punnett square and pedigree chart
shows a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell, this helps doctors detect disorders such as Down Syndrome
treatment for cystic fibrosis
physical therapy
treatment for sickle cell disease
vitamins and acids
treatment for down syndrome
education and job training
Selective Breeding
a process of which going out and selecting certain organisms with desired traits to be the parents of a new generation
two types of selective breeding
crossing two organisms that have similar and desirable characteristics because the offerings will probably inherit those same characteristics.
crossing two different organisms hoping for the best traits from both parents
cloned organisms have exactly the same traits from the organism from which it came from
genetic engineering
the process in which genes from one organism are transferred in the DNA or another organism. The hope of this one day is that a doctor could treat hemophilia by replacing a infected cell with a healthy cell from another pacient
Selective Breeding
going out and selecting purposefully the next generation to breed
crossing two organisms that have the same qualities
crossing two different breeds to create a new one
exactly the same traits as the original
genetic engineering
process in which you transfer DNA from 1 organism into another